[CRJU 4430] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (11 pages long!)

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CRJU 4430
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Victimology
Professor McMahon-Howard
R 1-12-17
Chapter 1 In-Class notes
What is Victimology?
Victims of crimes (not victims of natural disasters, etc.) are harmed by illegal acts.
Primary victims- directly harmed
Secondary Victims- indirectly harms (witnesses, first responders, families and friends to
primary victim.
Soeties the las defiitio of a iti doest fit (persos legally defied as itis
dot idetify as itis, like uderage prostitutes. Soe people identify as victims
when they are not legally defined as a victim, or are defined as a victim of a lesser crime,
like sexual assault/ sexual misconduct/ rape).
Victim vs Survivor
Viti is a dirty ord that has a soial stiga attahed to it eause its assoiated ith
being weak and helpless
Survivor is a more empowering.
Definition of Victimology- the scientific study of the physical, emotional, and financial harm
people suffer because of illegal activities.
Note that this definition of victimology is different from many others, like Forensic and
Police victimology (studies what they know about the victim to help them catch the
killer).
The Criminal Justice system has historically interacted with victims by treating them
more like evidence in a case instead of being concerned about their wellbeing as a
person.
Origins of Victimology
The field of itiology started ith a fous o iti preipitatio (ho the itis
actions initiated/ lead to the crime and their victimization. Basically, victim blaming) in
attempt to better understand offenders.
Current focus is on the nature and extent of criminal victimization, how victims respond
to crime, how society responds to victims, and how victims are treated by the CJ system.
Focus on victims’ rights.
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How do Victimologists study Crime Victims?
Use established social science research methods to objectively describe, measure, and
test hypotheses related to criminal victimization. Note: bias exists, and needs to be
minimized when studying. Proper research methods should be followed.
Sources of bias: personal experience (If you have been a victim, you might side
ith the iti autoatially, ut if you haet ee a iti, you ight ot e
able to understand how to best do the research), social environment (media),
estalished koledge i the field (People dot like hage. So if youre doig
research that might be controversial to the known/ accepted information in the
field, it might be automatically discounted/ dismissed).
Steps in the Reasoning Process
Identify, define, and describe the problem. (Child abuse, what constitutes child abuse?)
Measure the true dimensions of the problems. (How many cases of child abuse?)
Investigate how Victims are treated. (Victims of child abuse in the system)
Gather evidence to test hypotheses. (How do victims respond, what do they need?)
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