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[HIST 1111] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 28 pages long Study Guide!

Course Code
HIST 1111
Hutchinson, Matthew John
Study Guide

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HIST 1111
AXIAL AGE: Major Religions/ Traditions
***Know For Every Religion/ Tradition: Name, where it was founded, when it was founded,
who founded it, Core belief, and sacred text(s). ****
Karl Jaspers: German with strong influence on modern theology (and lots else), Religions begin
simultaneously and independently, shared values (Golden Rule, etc.). Pragmatic personalities,
In Common: durable, no record of communication between groups, all moving away from
polytheism, quest for source of order/ meaning,
Timeline: Hinduism; Zoroastrianism; Judaism; Jainism; Rational Humanism (Greece); Buddhism;
Legalism; Confucianism; Daoism.
Why did it happen? Harsher war (higher death tolls); people getting more interconnected/
Urbanism; commerce/ trade helps spread ideas.
Eastern Traditions:
Where it was founded: India
When it was founded: 1500 BCE-
Who founded it: N/A; no specific founder
Core belief: Brahman (the reality that we, as humans, are seeking to re-unite
with); moksha (liberation, takes many lifetimes), Samsara (cycle of rebirth);
Kaa depeds o doig ight atios i attept to leel up; the Caste
sste ad thei aig esposiilities ad stadads fo doig ight.
Sacred text(s): The Vedas (poems, hymns, prayers, rituals, gives power to
Brahmins, existed orally for a long time, but not written until 600 BCE), and The
Upanishads (mystical, philosophical, 800-400 BCE, NOT written by Brahmins).
Buddhism: made in retaliation to Hinduism
Where it was founded: India
When it was founded:
Who founded it: Siddhartha Gautama (566-486 BCE) was Buddha (The
Enlightened One), born into the top of the caste system, went on spiritual
journey at 35.
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