[HIST 2112] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 14 pages long Study Guide!

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HIST 2112
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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History Since 1877
Second Industrial Revolution
Steel production-bessemer process
Steel Hubs-Pittsburgh Chicago, New York(poster child for industrialization)
Books that impacted legislature- ule to’s ai, the jugle
Railroad made the second industrial revolution possible
o Important because of how it affected the national and global market
o Railroad times for delivering goods caused the different time zones
o So important that the entire economy suffered when railroad suffered
Free land grants
Andrew Carnegie
o Emigrated from Scotland with his family at the age of 13
o vertical integration: controlled every part of a process in the business (materials,
transportation, distribution etc)
o by the 1890s he dominated the steel industry and had the most technologically
advanced steel factories in the world
o father taught him social equality and democracy and his mother taught him that you
either get ahead or left behind
these values in mind he donated his wealth to different philanthropies such as
public libraries
o against unions
John D. Rockefeller
o Horizontal expansion: buy out all the competition
o Eventually came to vertical integration
o 1880a: Standard Oil controlled 90% of the oil in the U.S.
o Gave a lot of his money to charity (medical research, promote education)
o Against unions
o Participated in bribery, fixing prices and production quotas
J.P. Morgan: created company called U.S. Steel that gobbled up 8 large steel companies
Standard Oil and International Harvester(manufactures agricultural machinery)
No basic union rights (long days, no medical benefits, unsafe conditions
1890 Richest 1% Americans had same total income as bottom half of pop. And owned more land
than the 99%
Jacob Riis photographed the people of New York (child labor, overcrowding tenants, hunger,
1873-1897 The Great Depression
Trusts- legal devices whereby a single director managed the affairs of several rival companies
Mie’s feedo
o Elaborate work rulers that left skilled underground workers free of managerial
supervision
Many whites were afraid of granting the Western states statehood until a considerable number
of whites inhabited it 4
Bonanza farms: farms that covered thousands of acres and was employed by agricultural wage
workers
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John Wesley Powell: because of the limited rainfall and arid land, irrigation was the only way a
farm would survive and that is only possible through communal farming or corporations
Inventions
Telephone
Typewriter
Phonograph
Lightbulb
Atlantic cable(1866)
Industrialization
o Thomas Scott owner of the Peslaia Raiload fo a tie the out’s lagest
corporation)
o Railroads made it possible for miners to ship minerals to once inaccessible places
o New ways of smelting ore and mining
o John Wesley Powell columbused the idea of communal farming from Spanish and
Mexican landholdings
o Lost independence of when to work
Captains of Industry and Robber Barons
o People’s ho eeg ad isio pushed the eoo foad
o People who wielded power without accountability in an unregulated marketplace
o J.D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie argued to be either or
Both had humble beginnings but their dictatorial attitudes and lack of care for
their employees made people believe they were undermining political and
economic freedom
Manifest Destiny
o God given to expand the United States to the west coast
o Aeias’ dut  God to epad estad
Fedeik Jakso Tue’s thesis’’
o Letue: The “igifiae of the Fotie i Aeia Histo
Argued the western frontier is where qualities of distinctive American culture
were forged
Individual freedom, political democracy, economic mobility
The West acted as a safety valve for those who were unhappy with their live in
the East
Are Americans going to be content with having the entire continent of North
America or will we want to expand again?
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