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POLS 1101 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Actual Malice, James A. Garfield, Ernesto Miranda


Department
Political Science and International Affairs
Course Code
POLS 1101
Professor
Graham
Study Guide
Final

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KSU
POLS 1101
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1
Study Outline/Words/Phrases for Quiz 1
POLS 1101 American Government
Quiz 1 (Fall 2016) covers textbook, Chapters 1 and 2
Review assigned readings in textbook
Review Power Point presentations uploaded to D2L Brightspace
Study notes taken in class
Chapter 1 (Freedom, Order, or Equality)
Definition of "globalization" - The increasing interdependence of citizens and nations across the
world. The U.S. is thoroughly embedded in a worldwide economic, social, and political network.
Globalization tends to infringe on sovereignty by generating pressures for economic trade,
observance of human rights, and governance by international law.
Definition of "national sovereignty" - A political entity's externally recognized right to exercise
final authority over its affairs. Simply put, national sovereignty means that each national
government has the right to govern its people as it wishes, without interference from other
nations.
Definition of "government" - The legitimate use of force (police power) to control human
behavior; also, an organization extending to the whole society that can legitimately use force to
carry out its decisions.
The Purposes of Government (values pursued by government)
o maintain order (establishing the rule of law to preserve life and protect property)
o provide public goods (goods and services that benefit all citizens)
o promote equality (distinguish equality of opportunity [education and jobs] from equality of
outcome [redistribution of wealth and status to achieve economic and social equality])
Each person having the same chance to succeed in life is called equality of opportunity
Original dilemma - Freedom vs. Order
Modern dilemma - Freedom vs. Equality
Classical liberalism - Holds that the state (government) should leave citizens free to follow their
individual pursuits. Distinguish classical liberalism from present-day liberals.
Two Concepts of Freedom
1. "freedom of" - absence of constraints on behavior (synonymous with liberty as in freedom of
speech or freedom of religion-used in this sense in talking about freedom, order and equality)
2. "freedom from" means freedom from fear and freedom from want.
Police power - The authority of a government to maintain order and safeguard citizens' safety,
health, welfare, and morals. Under legal tradition and constitutional provisions, state
governments can act directly on residents under their police power. The national government
only has powers granted by the Constitution and lacks a general police power.
Political Ideology - A consistent set of values and beliefs about the proper purpose and scope of
government
Ideology and the Scope of Government
o Totalitarianism - A political philosophy that advocates unlimited power for the
government to enable it to control all sectors of society. (Examples: The Soviet Union
under Stalin and communism; Germany under Hitler.)
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2
o Socialism - The central government plays a strong role in regulating existing private
industry, and directing the economy, although it does allow some private ownership of
productive capacity.
o Capitalism - The system of government that favors free enterprise (privately owned
businesses operating without government regulation).
o Libertarianism - A political ideology that is opposed to all government action except as
necessary to protect life and property.
o Anarchism - A political philosophy that opposes government in any form.
American Political Ideologies
o Conservatives - Value order over freedom, and freedom over equality. Conservatives are
willing to use government to promote order but not economic and social equality.
Conservatives generally favor limited government, but want a strong national defense.
o Liberals - Value equality over freedom, and freedom over order. Liberals are willing to
use government to promote economic and social equality but not order. Liberals generally
support a broader role for government than do conservatives.
o Libertarians - Value freedom over both order and equality.
o Communitarians - Value both order and equality over freedom.
Chapter 2 (Majoritarian or Pluralist Democracy)
Different forms of government
o Autocracy - A system of government in which the power to govern is concentrated in the
hands of one individual (e.g., monarch, dictator).
o Oligarchy - A system of government in which power is concentrated in the hands of an
elite few (e.g., major landowners ruling as an aristocracy, military leaders in some
countries).
o Democracy - A system of government in which, in theory, the people rule, either directly
or indirectly.
o Representative Democracy - A form of government in which power resides in the people
and is exercised by their elected officials (sometimes referred to as a Republican form of
government)
o Paradox of Democracy - Describes a situation when more democracy results in less
individual freedoms
Alternative Models of Democracy
o Procedural View of Democracy
Universal participation (everyone should participate in decision making)
Political equality (one person, one vote)
Majority rule (any decision must reflect the preference of more than half of those
participating, i.e., a simple majority)
Government responsiveness to public opinion
o Substantive View of Democracy
This view of democracy is embodied in the substance of government policies
rather than the policymaking procedure
The core of substantive principles of democracy is embedded in the U.S.
Constitution, the Bill of Rights and other amendments to the Constitution
Most substantive theorists agree that government policies should guarantee civil
liberties and civil rights
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