PSYC 3301 Quiz: Research Methods Review

101 views13 pages
7 Feb 2017
School
Department
Course

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

Review of Topics for Exam I: Experimental Psychology
Resources: class notes, posted Powerpoints, Methods textbook, Statistics textbook, online
companion websites for both books, graded Homework, graded Activity, graded Quiz, your
instructor, & your classmates
1. Ways of acquiring knowledge
- Tenacity
o Information is accepted as true because it has always been believed or because
superstition supports it
- Intuition
o Information is accepted on the basis of a hunch or “gut feeling”
- Authority
o A person relies on information or answers from an expert in the subject area
- Empirical
o Uses observation or direct sensory experience to obtain knowledge
- Faith
o A variant of the method of authority in which people have unquestioning trust the
authority figure and, therefore, accept information from the authority without
doubt or challenge
2. Steps of the scientific method
- Step 1: Observe Behavior or Other Phenomena
o People commonly tend to generalize beyond the actual observations
Induction or Inductive Reasoning
Involves using a relatively small set of specific observations as the
basis for forming general statements about a larger set of possible
observations
- Step 2: Form a Tentative Answer or Explanation (a Hypothesis)
o Begins with identifying other factors or variables that are associated with your
observation
- Step 3: Use Your Hypothesis to Generate a Testable Prediction
o Hypothesis
A statement that describes or explains a relationship between or among
variables
o The logical process is known as deduction or deductive reasoning
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 13 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Uses a general statement as the basis for reaching a conclusion about
specific examples
- Step 4: Evaluate the Prediction by Making Systematic, Planned Observation
o This is the actual research or data collection phase
- Step 5: Use the Observations to Support, Refute, or Refine the Original Hypothesis
Scientific Method
o A method of acquiring knowledge that uses observations to develop a hypothesis
& then uses the hypothesis to make logical predictions that can be empirically
tested by making additional, systematic observations
3. General and Research Hypotheses
- General
o
- Research
o
- Characteristics of a GOOD hypothesis
o Logical
o Testable
All of the variables, events, and individuals can be defined & observed
o Refutable
One that can be demonstrated to be false. That is, it is possible for the
outcome to be different from the prediction
o Positive
4. Types of sources (primary/secondary)
- Primary
o A firsthand report of observations or research results written by the individual(s)
who actually conducted the research & made the observations
- Secondary
o Is a description or summary of another person’s work.
o Written by someone who did not participate in the research or observations being
discussed
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 13 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
5. Appropriate databases to use to find sources
- PsycARTICLES
o Full text database
o Contains about 163k items selected from 80 journals
o Peer reviewed scholarly & scientific articles in psuchologu
o Indexed with controlled vocabulary from APA’s thesaurus of Psychological Index
Terms
- PsycINFO
o Not-full-text database
o Contains over 3 million items selected from nearly 2500 periodicals
o Definite resource for abstracts of scholarly journal articles, book chapters, books,
dissertations
o Largest resource devoted to peer-reviewed literature in behavioral sciences
6. Process for finding appropriate sources (advanced search, selecting title or
keywords instead of whole article, etc)
- Use the title
- Use the abstract
7. What is a variable?
- characteristics or conditions that change or have different values for different individuals
8. What are the four types of variables and their characteristics?
- Independent
o The variable manipulated by the researcher
o Usually consists of two or more treatment conditions to which participants are
exposed
- Dependent
o The variable that is observed for changes to assess the effects of manipulating the
independent variable
o Typically a behavior or response measured in each treatment condition
- Extraneous
o Any variable that exists within a study other than the variables being studied
Types:
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 13 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class