[PSYC 3325] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (12 pages long)

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6 Feb 2017
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PSYC 3325
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Unifying Themes of Social Psychology
o Primarily from Smith & Mackie
o Two Fundamental Axioms
Construction of Reality
Every person’s view of reality is a construction
Pervasiveness of Social Influence
Other people influence virtually all of our thoughts, feelings, and
behavior whether those others are physically present or not
o Three Motivational Principles
Striving for Mastery
People seek to understand and predict events in the social world in
order to obtain rewards
Seeking Connectedness
Seek support, liking, and acceptance from the people and groups
we care about and value
Valuing ‘me and mine’
Desire to see ourselves and other people in groups connected to
ourselves in a positive life
o Ex: I think Im a great person, and Im also a KSU professor,
so I will give other KSU professors the benefit of the doubt
o Three Processing Principles
Conservatism
Individuals and groups views of the world are slow to change and
prone to perpetuate themselves
We look for information or confirmation that supports our beliefs
Accessibility
The information that is most readily available generally had the
most impact on our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
Superficiality vs. Depth
People ordinarily put little effort into dealing with information but
at times are motivated to consider information in more depth
o Cognitive misers
We don’t think any harder than we have to
Five Core Human Motives as Unifying Framework for Social Psychology
o Primarily from Fiske (2004)
o Center around motives
o Belonging
Wanting to connect with others
Similar to “seeking connectedness”
o Understanding
Seek to understand our world
Similar to “striving for mastery”
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o Control
Seek to predict and control our world
o Enhancing Self
Similar to “valuing me and mine”
o Trusting others
Needing to trust
Perhaps because we want to feel safe
May be why we feel hurt when our trust feels violated
Methods of Social Psychology
o Social psychology
The scientific study on how people think about, influence, and relate to
one another
o Experiments
The most common type of research study in social psychology
Studies that seek to discover cause effect relationships/causation
Attempt to manipulate on or more factors while keeping the others
constant (effect of the IV on the DV)
Elements of an experiment
Hypothesis
o Found in the introduction section of most journal articles
o Often derived from theories
o Must be falsifiable
Something that can be proven or disproven
Independent variable
o Usually found in the method section
o In a cause and effect relationship, the IV is the cause
What youre manipulating
o Random assignment
Everyone has an equal chance of being in each
condition
Individual differences are spread out evenly
Dependent variable
o Found in the Method section
o The ‘effect’ in a cause and effect relationship
Statistical analysis
o Found in the Results section
o How confident a researcher can be that their results are not
due to chance
Interpretation of Results
o Found in the Discussion section
o Interprets the results
Ethical considerations
o right to informed consent
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