PSYC 4430- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 34 pages long!)

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16 Feb 2018
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PSYC 4430
Midterm EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 6: Mood Disorders and Suicide
1. Overview of Depression and Mania
a. Mood disordersgross (not normal) deviations in mood
b. Coposed of differet types of ood episodes—periods of depressed or
elevated mood lasting days or weeks, including:
i. Major depressive episodes
ii. Manic or hypomanic episodes
iii. Persistent depression
2. Types of Mood Episodes
a. Major depressive episode
i. Extremely depressed mood and/or loss of pleasure (anhedonia)
1. Lasts most of the day, nearly every day for at least 2 weeks
ii. At least 4 of these additional physical or cognitive symptoms
1. Indecisiveness
2. Feelings of worthlessness
3. Fatigue
4. Appetite change
5. Restlessness or feeling slowed down
6. Sleep disturbance
b. Manic episode
i. Elevated, expansive mood for at least 1 week
ii. Inflated self-esteem, decreased need to sleep, excessive talkativeness,
flight of ideas or sense that thoughts are racing, easy distractibility,
increase in goal-directed activity or psychomotor agitation, excessive
involvement in pleasurable but risky behaviors (e.g. sex, drugs, driving
fast, etc.)
iii. Impairment in normal functioning
c. Hypomanic episode
i. Shorter, less severe version of manic episodes
ii. Last at least 4 days
iii. Have fewer and milder symptoms
iv. Associated with less impairment than a manic episode (e.g. less risky
behaviors)
v. May not be problematic in and of itself, but usually occurs in the context
of a more problematic mood disorder
d. Mixed featuresterm for a mood episode with some elements reflecting the
opposite valence of mood
i. Example: depressive episode with some manic features
ii. Example: manic episode with some depressed/anxious features
3. Major Depressive Disorder
a. Clinical features
i. One or more major depressive episodes separated by periods of
remission
ii. Single episodes are highly unusual
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iii. Recurrent episodes are more common
b. From grief to depression
i. Previously could not be diagnosed during periods of mourning
ii. Now recognized that major depression may occur as part of the grieving
process
4. Persistent Depressive Disorder
a. At least 2 years of depressive symptoms
i. Depressed mood most of the day on more than 50% of days
ii. No more than 2 months symptom free
iii. Symptoms can persist unchanged over long periods
iv. May include periods of more severe major depressive symptoms
1. Major depressive symptoms may be intermittent or last for the
majority or the entirety of the time period
b. Types of PDD
i. Mild depressive symptoms without any major depressive episodes (with
pure dysthymic syndrome)
ii. Mild depressive symptoms with additional major depressive episodes
ourrig iterittetly preiously alled doule depressio
iii. Major depressie episodes lastig 2 + years ith persistet ajor
depressie episode
5. Other Depressive Disorders
a. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
i. Different from PMS
ii. Significant depressive symptoms occurring prior to menses during the
majority of cycles, leading to distress or impairment
iii. Controversial diagnosis
1. Advantage: legitimizes the difficulties some women face when
symptoms are very severe
2. Disadvantage: pathologizes an experience many consider to be
normal
b. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
i. Severe temper outbursts occurring frequently, against a backdrop of
angry or irritable mood
ii. Diagnosed only in children 6-18
iii. Criteria for manic/hypomanic episode are not met
iv. Designed in part to combat over-diagnosis of bipolar disorder in use
6. Bipolar I Disorder
a. Overview and defining features
i. Alternations between full manic episodes & major depressive disorders
b. Facts and statistics
i. Average age of onset is 15-18 years
ii. Can begin in childhood
iii. Tends to be chronic
iv. Suicide is a chronic consequence
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