[SCI 1101] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 54 pages long Study Guide!

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Published on 29 Nov 2016
School
KSU
Department
Science
Course
SCI 1101
KSU
SCI 1101
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Science, Society, and Environment Ch1 “The Nature of Science”
Our Island, Earth
Earth may seem enormous, but it and its systems are finite and limited
We can change the Earth and damage its systems
Environment = all the living and nonliving things around us
-Animals, plants, forests, farms, etc.
-Continents, oceans, clouds, ice caps
-Structures, urban centers, living spaces
-Social relationships and institutions
Our environment surrounds us
Humans depend on a healthy, functioning planet
The fundamental insight of environmental science:
-We are part of the natural world, but we can also change it
-Our interactions with its other parts matter a great deal
-We depend completely on the environment for survival
-Increased health, longer lives, wealth, mobility, leisure
-But natural systems have been degraded by pollution, soil erosion, species extinction, etc.
-Environmental changes threaten long-term health and survival
Environmental science explores our interactions with the world
Environmental science = the study of:
-How the natural world works
-How the environment affects humans and vice versa
We need to understand our interactions with the environment to creatively solve environmental
problems. Global conditions are rapidly changing. We are also rapidly gaining knowledge. The
opportunity to solve problems is still available
We rely on natural resources
Natural resources = substances and energy sources needed for survival
Renewable natural resources = that can be replenished
-Perpetually renewed: sunlight, wind, wave energy
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-Renew themselves over short periods: timber, water, soil
These can be destroyed
Nonrenewable natural resources = that are unavailable after depletion
-Oil, coal, minerals
We rely on ecosystem services
Natural resources are “goods” produced by nature. Earth’s natural resources provide “services” to us
Ecosystem services = services that arise from the normal functioning of natural services
-Purify air and water, cycle nutrients, regulate climate
-Pollinate plants, receive and recycle wastes
We degrade ecosystem services by depleting resources, destroying habitat, generating pollution
-Increased human affluence has intensified degradation
Population growth amplifies our impact
There are over 7 billion humans
Agricultural revolution  Crops, livestock, Stable food supplies  Industrial revolution, Urbanized
society powered by fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal)  Sanitation and medicines, Pesticides and fertilizers.
Resource consumption exerts social and environmental pressures
Affluence increases consumption
Ecological footprint = the environmental impact of a person or population
-The area of biologically productive land + water required to supply raw resources and
dispose/recycle waste
People in rich nations have much larger ecological footprints
Overshoot = humans have surpassed the Earth’s capacity to support us
-We are using renewable resources 50% faster than they are being replenished
If everyone consumed the amount of resources, the U.S. does, we would need four Earths!
Environmental science can help us avoid past mistakes
How will resource consumption and population growth impact today’s global society?
Civilizations have fallen after degrading the environment. Ex: Easter Island, Greek and Roman empires.
Once lush regions (e.g., Iraq) are now barren deserts.
Civilizations succeed or fail according to how they interact with the environment along with how they
respond to problems. Environmental science can help build a better world
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Document Summary

Science, society, and environment ch1 the nature of science . Earth may seem enormous, but it and its systems are finite and limited. We can change the earth and damage its systems. Environment = all the living and nonliving things around us. We are part of the natural world, but we can also change it. Our interactions with its other parts matter a great deal. We depend completely on the environment for survival. But natural systems have been degraded by pollution, soil erosion, species extinction, etc. Environmental changes threaten long-term health and survival. Environmental science explores our interactions with the world. How the environment affects humans and vice versa. We need to understand our interactions with the environment to creatively solve environmental problems. The opportunity to solve problems is still available. Natural resources = substances and energy sources needed for survival. Renewable natural resources = that can be replenished. Renew themselves over short periods: timber, water, soil.