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PSYC 350- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 18 pages long!)

18 pages89 viewsSpring 2017

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 350
Professor
Stephen Ilardi
Study Guide
Midterm

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KU
PSYC 350
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Thursday, February 16, 2017
Key: In class notes, written by Steve
Hypothesized causes of specific phobia:
Biological Model: preparedness hypothesis (Mineka’s studies)
also, genetic vulnerability (h = ~.30)
oHighly neurotic people tend to have higher genetic vulnerability
Psychodynamic Model: phobic object is symbol of inner conflict
Behavioral Model: classical conditioning
oHow the environment shapes us (environmentalists)
oWe are conditioned to fear certain things
oSome phobias are acquired through classical conditioning
Cognitive: observational learning
oWhat you think about things will determine what you fear
oObservational learning: ex. As a child, if we see a parent reacting to something
fearfully, we will assume that “something” is to be feared
Ex. In class about woman with rodent phobia
Acquired phobia during childhood when her and her mom were
making cookies and a mouse came out into the kitchen and her
mom 100% wigged out
Treatments:
Exposure-based Psychotherapy has ~90% cure rate
(sadly, only 12% of practicing therapists have training in exposure)
Why only 12%? - because it’s tradition/legacy  (people have been doing non-behavioral
therapy for so long even though it doesn’t work)
Exposure  Habituation (decreased response to stimulus)
Habituation is the simplest learning mechanism in animals
Graded-exposure hierarchy (gradual exposure)
oA decreased response to a stimulus based on repeated or sustained exposure to
that stimulus
Ex. Of Steve when he was younger and My Sherona became him and his
girlfriend’s song and every time he heard it he thought about her
His roommate the next year had the record and played the song over and
over and Steve grew habituated to the song
You can have spontaneous reactions to the stimulus at random times
Ex. Steve heard My Sherona again on spotify recently and
remembered how much he loves the song
Habituation (on average) usually happens within 15-20mins after you are
exposed to the stimulus
Ex. In class: woman with severe arachnophobia
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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Lowest fear of hierarchy was a cartoon spider
Moved up to pictures of real spiders, then rubber spiders, etc.
“The Ilardi Rule of Anxiety”
oregarding an anxious response, exposure* always makes it better and avoidance
always makes it worse.
*non-traumatic exposure
exposure that doesn’t make it better – exposure that causes a level of
anxiety that causes panic, anxiety, etc. You tend to escape the situation
before you have the chance to habituate
oFlooding: when you take a person to such a high level of anxiety that you take
them to their highest level of fear of hierarchy
ex. Throwing someone afraid of deep water into the deep end and
basically forcing them to swim
Dr. Ost (Ph.D) – takes snake phobic and cures her in 3 hours
o80% cure rate (according to video)
oamygdala freaks out and tells her that she’s “going to die” and that she’s “gotta
get outta there” but frontal cortex tells her to stay, “we trust this guy”
obreathing techniques are a type of escape – distracts you from the actual
stimulus that is making you anxious
force yourself to be exposed!!!!
***We think that changing our beliefs will change our behavior, but changing our
behavior changes our beliefs***
No drug treatments even come close, not widely used
oNo way to reliably fix it with drugs because it hinges on exposure
oWhy don’t drugs biologically work/help?
All the drugs we have now are “blunt instruments” and specific phobias
are “very very narrow (stimuli)” so there’s no drug that can hit it 100% on
the head
Tuesday, February 21, 2017
Key: in-class notes, DSM5 symptoms, written by Steve
D-cycloserine: promotes formation of new memories, faster therapy
oAntibiotic – used primarily for tuberculosis treatment
It promotes the formation of new memories – helps learn new
connections
Helps stimulate the formation of new associative learning
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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