[ART 101] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 53 pages long Study Guide!

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29 Nov 2016
Department
Course
Professor
Lafayette
ART 101
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Greek Architecture #7
October 5-17
Greek Architecture 600-400 BCE
Characteristics
-characteristic architectural type is the temple
not tombs
-purpose was to house the statue of the deity to whom the temple was dedicated
-worship took place outside the temple
involved a burnt offering of an animal (a lamb, goat, etc.)
alters were outside surrounded by a fire wall made of stone
-temples were accompanied by other buildings including treasuries
small square rectangular buildings where people would make offerings of silver or
gold
-worship of god and goddess involved other rituals and in particular many different arts
theater
poetry
dancing & singing
-theaters were built into the hillside and were part of temple complexes
people would sit very close together
cathartic performances
performed in cycles of 48 hours
-thriving centers of culture that attracted people at all different times
-females served as priestesses of temples dedicated to female deities and male
priests for male deities
-earliest greek temples were made out of mud brick and wood and do not survive, we
only have descriptions of them
-through contact with Egypt, stone architecture is introduce to Greece
-rectangular rooms with a cella, surrounded with columns
-Greeks believe temples should reflect principles
mathematics
!1
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Greek Architecture #7
-each major region of Greece had their own distinct architectural style
-three major orders:
orders are a series of proportions
most architecture in the west is based on Greek Architecture
1) Doric order
associated with Athens
Attica
colonies
well spread order
temples approached by a series of steps: stereobate
stylobate: the column level
column is described as a body
wider at the bottom/base with a tapering shaft
tappers to express the weight of what it holds on top
the swelling of the column is called the entasis
tappers towards a neck with a capital (head) on top
transition from the shaft and the neck and everything above it is accomplished by a
pillar shaped abacus
built on a number of drums
individual slices of marble
on top is an entablature
flat area called an architrave and a frieze of alternating triglyph and metope
acroterion: animal sculpture that water would come out of
2) Ionic order
associated with the Greek Islands
-it was in the 19th century that the terms we use came into being
-classical, late classical, archaic etc.
-the parthenon represented this peak of perfection that was reached around the year
448 BCE-432 BCE
!2
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