Study Guides (248,531)
United States (123,402)
PSYC 110 (9)
Wenze (7)
Midterm

PSYC 110 Midterm: Exam 2: Learning - Intelligence
Premium

14 Pages
18 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 110
Professor
Wenze
Semester
Spring

Description
Learning Habituation and Observational Learning Habituation • Decline in response to a stimulus once that stimulus has become familiar o E.g., summer storm rolling in – first vs. fifth minute of wind gusts and rain Dishabituation • Increase in responsiveness with change in something familiar o E.g. summer storm – now there’s thunder! ▪ OR o The storm stops suddenly Observational Learning • Learning by watching others • No direct experience involved • Modeling and imitation Observational Learning (cont.) • Bandura’s Bobo Doll study o Study design ▪ Experimental group: • Child plays, adult plays • Adult plays violently with Bobo doll • Child taken to second room (cool toys!); experimenter prohibits play • Child taken to third room, with Bobo doll ▪ Control group? • Adult not violent o Study findings? Children exposed to violent adult model more likely to lash out at the doll ▪ (experimental group violence > control group violence) Observation Learning • Who are we most likely to learn from? o Similar o Successful o Admirable • Mirror neurons o Neurons that fire when we make an action or when we observe someone else making that action o Mirror neurons may help enable imitation ▪ May contribute to the ability to experience empathy • …for good o can enable prosocial effects • …for bad o can also promote antisocial effects • the impact of media violence on behavior o correlational studies clearly tell us that violent viewing is linked to violent behavior but what is the directionality of the effect? ▪ Media Violence • experimental studies suggest that viewing media violence does lead to more violent behavior o violent videos ▪ frustrate ▪ deliver more shocks o non-violent videos frustrate ▪ ▪ deliver fewer shocks o imitation o desensitation Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning • The Office • Ivan Pavlov o Investigating dogs’gastric functioning o Dogs salivated before food was actually delivered Summary of Classical Conditioning Before Conditioning • Food (unconditioned stimulus) causes the dog to salivate (unconditioned response) • Abell (neutral stimulus) does not cause the dog to salivate During the Conditioning • The ringing bell is presented to a dog along with the food ***bell must be presented BEFORE the meat during pairing trials After Conditioning • The ringing bell (conditioned stimulus) is presented without the food, and the dog’s response is measured ***Learning via association (linking stimuli and anticipating events) Other Instances of Classical Conditioning • In animals… o Dogs and their leashes ▪ UCS = walk, UCR = excitement! ▪ CS = leash, CR = excitement (over sight of leash) • In humans… o Someone who’s mugged on the street at dusk ▪ UCS = mugging, UCR = fear ▪ CS = dusk, CR = fear (of that time of day) UCS: female legs UCR: arousal NS: car CS: car CR: arousal (to car) The Office • US = do you want an altoid? (salvation) • UR = reaches for mint • CS = computer bell • CR = reach/salivate Classical Conditioning • What would happen if… o Bell no longer paired with food? o Computer no longer paired with altoid? ▪ EXTINCTION o Spontaneous recovery Watson’s “LittleAlbert” Study • Classical conditioning again • Wanted to show that fear is conditioned o UCS = loud noise o UCR = fear o CS = rat o CR = fear (to the rat) Two Final Terms • Generalization o CR to a range of stimuli, provided the stimuli are enough to the CS • Discrimination Operant Conditioning Operant (instrument) Conditioning • Thorndike and the Puzzle Box o Learned to escape in small increments o Incorrect response gradually “stamped out” current response gradually “stamped in” The Law of Effect • Responses followed by a reward o Strengthened o More likely to occur again in the same situation • Responses followed by no reward o Weakened o Unlikely to occur again in the same situation Operant Conditioning • B.F. Skinner o Agreed with the Law of Effect o Felt Thorndike’s method was inefficient ▪ Used Skinner Box • The organism is operating on the environment • Reinforce: stimulus delivered after a response that makes the response more likely in the future o What is reinforcing varies across situations and organisms! Not universal! • Shaping: rewarding successive approximations of desired behavior • Schedules of reinforcement o Ratio schedules (# responses) ▪ Fixed ratio (pellet every 10 peck) ▪ Variable ratio (pellet after random #) o Interval schedules (time) ▪ Fixed interval (pellet after every 5 minutes) ▪ Variable interval (pellet after random minutes) Ways to Increase Behavior • Positive reinforcement o Description: add a desirable stimulus o Examples: pet a dog that comes when you call it; pay the person who paints your house • Negative reinforcement o Description: remove an aversive stimulus o Examples: take painkillers to end pain; fasten seatbelt to end loud beeping Ways to Decrease Behavior • Positive punishment o Administer an aversive stimulus ▪ Spray water on barking dog; get traffic ticket for speeding • Negative punishment o Withdraw a rewarding stimulus ▪ Take away a teen’s driving privileges Reinforcement vs. Punishment • Punishment! o Reinforcement makes a behavior more likely o Punishment makes a behavior less likely o Positive means adding something o Negative means taking something away Building and Storing Memory Memory • What do we have to do in order to remember something? What steps are we going through? o Encoding (acquisition) o Storage o Retrieval Original 3-Stage Memory Model • Allanson and Shiffrin o Sensory memory ▯ short-term memory (encoding through rehearsal) ▯ long- term memory (storage, for later retrieval) Updated Model • Short term memory is working memory; it’s active space o External events ▯ sensory memory ▯ working/short-term memory ▯ ▯ long term memory storage ▪ External events ▯ sensory events is sensory input ▪ Sensory memory ▯ working/short-term memory is attention to important or novel info/encoding Working/short-term memory ▯ long-term memory storage is encoding ▪ ▪ Long-term memory storage ▯ working/short term memory is retrieving ▪ External events ▯ long term memory storage is automatic processing ▪ Long term memory storage contains info you can remember if asked Automatic Processing • One way information may be encoded o Incidental learning o Yields implicit memories E.g. what did you have for dinner last night? ▪ ▪ Associations Sensory Memory • Immediate, brief recording of sensory info in memory • Full but fleeting o Iconic memory o Echoic memory (3-4 seconds) Working Memory • What does working memory do? o Actively processes incoming info o Serves as a place for temporary storage, organization, and manipulation of info • Encoding though effortful processing o Intentional leaning o Explicit memories ▪ E.g. what are you new colleagues names? What are some monocular cues we use to aid in depth perception? • What is the capacity of working/short term memory? o 7 items, plus or minus 2 items o any way to get around this?... Effortful Processing Strategies • chunking o but still only 7 +/- 2 chunks • AKA: techniques for improving memory (mnemonics) o Chunking o Imagery (interactive is not) o Method of loci o Verse/rhyme o Use of sentences or words ▪ Elizabeth Smelled Roses; HOMES Effort Processing Strategies • Hierarchies o Encoding and effortful processing ▪ Sensory memory ▪ Capacity of short term and working memory ▪ Effortful processing strategies • Chunking • Imagery • Spacing • Spacing effect o Distributed vs. mass practice • Testing effect o Practice retrieval over time; don’t just reread Other Ways to Enhance Memory? • Make material personally relevant • Deep processing (somatic processing) vs. shallow processing o Attention to meaning vs. attention to superficial characteristics of the information to be remembered Depth of Processing • Study asking participants to memorize 48 words o Group 1: contain an “e”? capital form? o Group 2: rhyme with another word? o Group 3: does the word fit into a particular category? o Group 4: does it fit into a sentence? • Why might this process work better? o Creates lots of retrieval paths Connections, ways to access material later ▪ o Physical trace is stronger? Memory Storage • Many parts of the brain interact as we encode, store, and retrieve memories • Memory storage: explicit memories ▯ declaritative • Hippocampus ((loading dock) ▯ frontal lobes (storage)) o Hippocampus consolidates memories as you sleep ▪ Sleep: another way to improve your memory Sleep and Memory in College Students • How much sleep does the average college student need? o 9 hours • what percent of college students sleep enough? o Very few • How much does sleep help your memory? (And how much does sleep deprivation hurt it?) o Alot • Most critical period of sleep for memory consolidation? o The hours immediately following a lesson Memory Storage • Implicit and procedural memories o Implicit: classically conditioned process ▪ Cerebellum ▯ implicit o Procedural: how to ride bike, play piano Basal ganglia ▯ procedural ▪ Memory Storage: Emotion: Related • Amygdala What is the neural basis for learning and memory? • Long term potentiation (LTP): increase in synaptic communication as you associate concepts Retrieving Memories Retrieval • Recall o Name 7 key structures on a neuron and describe their corresponding functions • Recognition o Which of the following is a structure found on a neuron? ▪ Hormone ▪ Node ▪ Axon Cochlea ▪ ▪
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 110

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit