Study Guides (248,531)
United States (123,402)
PSYC 110 (9)
Wenze (7)

PSYC 110 Midterm: Exam 2: Learning - Intelligence

14 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 110

Learning Habituation and Observational Learning Habituation • Decline in response to a stimulus once that stimulus has become familiar o E.g., summer storm rolling in – first vs. fifth minute of wind gusts and rain Dishabituation • Increase in responsiveness with change in something familiar o E.g. summer storm – now there’s thunder! ▪ OR o The storm stops suddenly Observational Learning • Learning by watching others • No direct experience involved • Modeling and imitation Observational Learning (cont.) • Bandura’s Bobo Doll study o Study design ▪ Experimental group: • Child plays, adult plays • Adult plays violently with Bobo doll • Child taken to second room (cool toys!); experimenter prohibits play • Child taken to third room, with Bobo doll ▪ Control group? • Adult not violent o Study findings? Children exposed to violent adult model more likely to lash out at the doll ▪ (experimental group violence > control group violence) Observation Learning • Who are we most likely to learn from? o Similar o Successful o Admirable • Mirror neurons o Neurons that fire when we make an action or when we observe someone else making that action o Mirror neurons may help enable imitation ▪ May contribute to the ability to experience empathy • …for good o can enable prosocial effects • …for bad o can also promote antisocial effects • the impact of media violence on behavior o correlational studies clearly tell us that violent viewing is linked to violent behavior but what is the directionality of the effect? ▪ Media Violence • experimental studies suggest that viewing media violence does lead to more violent behavior o violent videos ▪ frustrate ▪ deliver more shocks o non-violent videos frustrate ▪ ▪ deliver fewer shocks o imitation o desensitation Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning • The Office • Ivan Pavlov o Investigating dogs’gastric functioning o Dogs salivated before food was actually delivered Summary of Classical Conditioning Before Conditioning • Food (unconditioned stimulus) causes the dog to salivate (unconditioned response) • Abell (neutral stimulus) does not cause the dog to salivate During the Conditioning • The ringing bell is presented to a dog along with the food ***bell must be presented BEFORE the meat during pairing trials After Conditioning • The ringing bell (conditioned stimulus) is presented without the food, and the dog’s response is measured ***Learning via association (linking stimuli and anticipating events) Other Instances of Classical Conditioning • In animals… o Dogs and their leashes ▪ UCS = walk, UCR = excitement! ▪ CS = leash, CR = excitement (over sight of leash) • In humans… o Someone who’s mugged on the street at dusk ▪ UCS = mugging, UCR = fear ▪ CS = dusk, CR = fear (of that time of day) UCS: female legs UCR: arousal NS: car CS: car CR: arousal (to car) The Office • US = do you want an altoid? (salvation) • UR = reaches for mint • CS = computer bell • CR = reach/salivate Classical Conditioning • What would happen if… o Bell no longer paired with food? o Computer no longer paired with altoid? ▪ EXTINCTION o Spontaneous recovery Watson’s “LittleAlbert” Study • Classical conditioning again • Wanted to show that fear is conditioned o UCS = loud noise o UCR = fear o CS = rat o CR = fear (to the rat) Two Final Terms • Generalization o CR to a range of stimuli, provided the stimuli are enough to the CS • Discrimination Operant Conditioning Operant (instrument) Conditioning • Thorndike and the Puzzle Box o Learned to escape in small increments o Incorrect response gradually “stamped out” current response gradually “stamped in” The Law of Effect • Responses followed by a reward o Strengthened o More likely to occur again in the same situation • Responses followed by no reward o Weakened o Unlikely to occur again in the same situation Operant Conditioning • B.F. Skinner o Agreed with the Law of Effect o Felt Thorndike’s method was inefficient ▪ Used Skinner Box • The organism is operating on the environment • Reinforce: stimulus delivered after a response that makes the response more likely in the future o What is reinforcing varies across situations and organisms! Not universal! • Shaping: rewarding successive approximations of desired behavior • Schedules of reinforcement o Ratio schedules (# responses) ▪ Fixed ratio (pellet every 10 peck) ▪ Variable ratio (pellet after random #) o Interval schedules (time) ▪ Fixed interval (pellet after every 5 minutes) ▪ Variable interval (pellet after random minutes) Ways to Increase Behavior • Positive reinforcement o Description: add a desirable stimulus o Examples: pet a dog that comes when you call it; pay the person who paints your house • Negative reinforcement o Description: remove an aversive stimulus o Examples: take painkillers to end pain; fasten seatbelt to end loud beeping Ways to Decrease Behavior • Positive punishment o Administer an aversive stimulus ▪ Spray water on barking dog; get traffic ticket for speeding • Negative punishment o Withdraw a rewarding stimulus ▪ Take away a teen’s driving privileges Reinforcement vs. Punishment • Punishment! o Reinforcement makes a behavior more likely o Punishment makes a behavior less likely o Positive means adding something o Negative means taking something away Building and Storing Memory Memory • What do we have to do in order to remember something? What steps are we going through? o Encoding (acquisition) o Storage o Retrieval Original 3-Stage Memory Model • Allanson and Shiffrin o Sensory memory ▯ short-term memory (encoding through rehearsal) ▯ long- term memory (storage, for later retrieval) Updated Model • Short term memory is working memory; it’s active space o External events ▯ sensory memory ▯ working/short-term memory ▯ ▯ long term memory storage ▪ External events ▯ sensory events is sensory input ▪ Sensory memory ▯ working/short-term memory is attention to important or novel info/encoding Working/short-term memory ▯ long-term memory storage is encoding ▪ ▪ Long-term memory storage ▯ working/short term memory is retrieving ▪ External events ▯ long term memory storage is automatic processing ▪ Long term memory storage contains info you can remember if asked Automatic Processing • One way information may be encoded o Incidental learning o Yields implicit memories E.g. what did you have for dinner last night? ▪ ▪ Associations Sensory Memory • Immediate, brief recording of sensory info in memory • Full but fleeting o Iconic memory o Echoic memory (3-4 seconds) Working Memory • What does working memory do? o Actively processes incoming info o Serves as a place for temporary storage, organization, and manipulation of info • Encoding though effortful processing o Intentional leaning o Explicit memories ▪ E.g. what are you new colleagues names? What are some monocular cues we use to aid in depth perception? • What is the capacity of working/short term memory? o 7 items, plus or minus 2 items o any way to get around this?... Effortful Processing Strategies • chunking o but still only 7 +/- 2 chunks • AKA: techniques for improving memory (mnemonics) o Chunking o Imagery (interactive is not) o Method of loci o Verse/rhyme o Use of sentences or words ▪ Elizabeth Smelled Roses; HOMES Effort Processing Strategies • Hierarchies o Encoding and effortful processing ▪ Sensory memory ▪ Capacity of short term and working memory ▪ Effortful processing strategies • Chunking • Imagery • Spacing • Spacing effect o Distributed vs. mass practice • Testing effect o Practice retrieval over time; don’t just reread Other Ways to Enhance Memory? • Make material personally relevant • Deep processing (somatic processing) vs. shallow processing o Attention to meaning vs. attention to superficial characteristics of the information to be remembered Depth of Processing • Study asking participants to memorize 48 words o Group 1: contain an “e”? capital form? o Group 2: rhyme with another word? o Group 3: does the word fit into a particular category? o Group 4: does it fit into a sentence? • Why might this process work better? o Creates lots of retrieval paths Connections, ways to access material later ▪ o Physical trace is stronger? Memory Storage • Many parts of the brain interact as we encode, store, and retrieve memories • Memory storage: explicit memories ▯ declaritative • Hippocampus ((loading dock) ▯ frontal lobes (storage)) o Hippocampus consolidates memories as you sleep ▪ Sleep: another way to improve your memory Sleep and Memory in College Students • How much sleep does the average college student need? o 9 hours • what percent of college students sleep enough? o Very few • How much does sleep help your memory? (And how much does sleep deprivation hurt it?) o Alot • Most critical period of sleep for memory consolidation? o The hours immediately following a lesson Memory Storage • Implicit and procedural memories o Implicit: classically conditioned process ▪ Cerebellum ▯ implicit o Procedural: how to ride bike, play piano Basal ganglia ▯ procedural ▪ Memory Storage: Emotion: Related • Amygdala What is the neural basis for learning and memory? • Long term potentiation (LTP): increase in synaptic communication as you associate concepts Retrieving Memories Retrieval • Recall o Name 7 key structures on a neuron and describe their corresponding functions • Recognition o Which of the following is a structure found on a neuron? ▪ Hormone ▪ Node ▪ Axon Cochlea ▪ ▪
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 110

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.