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PSYC 110 Quiz: Exam 3: Development - Personality

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Lafayette College
PSYC 110

Development Before Birth (Prenatal)
 Prenatal Development • Zygote: fertilized egg (fertilization – week 2) • Embryo: mass of cells attached to uterus (weeks 3-8) • Fetus: growth, development, learning (weeks 9-birth) o Sound of mom’s voice o Language o Adaptation/habituation Newborns • What can newborns do and how do we know? Habituation Task • Decrease in responding after increase in stimulation • Modified pacifier to help decipher what they learned in utero What Else Can a Newborn Do? • Grasp, rooting, and sucking reflexes o Rooting is stroke cheek and turn mouth toward stroke ▪ Help find food for survival • Newborns prefer sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness and connection • Infants who are just a few days old will imitate others’faces Infancy and Childhood Brain Maturation and Infant Memory • Infantile amnesia o 3 years old: earliest conscious memories ▪ brain still developing ▪ no language Motor Development • worldwide, children seem to pass developmental milestones o in some order o at the same general ages …with a few exceptions ▪ • one year is first words and starts to walk • environment and genes matter! Cognitive Development • Jean Piaget o studied his own children o child’s mind is qualitatively different from an adult’s o struggle to make sense of experience = driving factor • table 5.1 Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2) • object permanence (~6 months) • assimilation vs. accommodation o assimilation = helicopter o accommodation = start to separate Preoperational Stage (2-6/7 years) • able to represent things with words and images but cannot perform mental operations • at first o failure of conversation o can’t take another person’s perspective (egocentrism) • preschoolers and the false-belief test (egocentrism) Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years) • inability to reason about theoretical • inability to reason deductively o e.g., ifA&B are true, must C be true? Formal Operational Stage (12-adult) • can reason abstractly • can reason in a moral way New Evidence • general sequence: pretty universal • boundaries between “stages” less clear • some abilities emerge earlier than thought • some abilities are there (nearly) from birth! Social Development • what is attachment? o Emotional tie with another person • How does it form? o Harlow et al. 1971 Attachment • Harlow’s studies on attachment • The roots of attachment lie in comfort and security, not provision of physical needs o Primary caregiver in secure case Some Species Imprint During a Critical Period -imprinting - the process by which certain animals form strong attachments during early life • Attachment in humans o About 60% of babies are securely (play happily, seek out, upset when mom or dad leaves) attached o About 40% are insecurely (anxious or avoidant relationship with caregiver) attached How toAssessAttachment • Strange situation procedure (Ainsworth, 1979) o Unfamiliar setting o Mom is present, then leaves o What happens when she leaves? When she returns? What Decreases SecureAttachment? • Inconsistent/insensitive parenting • Child’s temperament • Instability in home What Does SecureAttachment Predict? • Better peer relationships • Better interpersonal functioning • Better mental health Attaching Outside the Home • Does deprivation predict poor attachment? o Yes (e.g. Romanian orphanages) • Does day care predict poor attachment? o Quality day care does not Parenting Styles • How did your parents “parent” you? high authoritarian Authoritative (best) Uninvolved (worst) permissive Low o Best mental health outcomes, relationships… o Outcomes and parenting styles is correlated What Impacts Parenting Style? • Education and socioeconomic status • Child’s temperament Adolescence and EmergingAdulthood Adolescence • Puberty o Boys: 13; girls: 11 o Effects of early maturation for boys vs. girls? Generally positive for boys (with some negatives) (impulsive, delinquent ▪ actions, alcohol abuse) ▪ Mostly bad for girls • Mismatch of body and what they are thinking (creating stress) • Treated like woman but don’t think like them • Higher depression, lower self-esteem Girls are Maturing Earlier • Increased body fat • Increased hormone – mimicking chemicals in the environment • Increased family disruption • Girls hit height growth spurt at 11 • Boy catch up at 15/16 Cognitive Development • Pruning of unused neurons and connections • Abstract reasoning (formal operational period) • Development of frontal lobes Learning to be Moral – Kohlberg • Preconvention, conventional, postconventional morality o Avoid punishment, gain reward • What you’d do: less important • Why: more important Does this Predict Moral Behavior? • YES • (study of cheating) Other “Tasks” ofAdolescence • forming an identity o may come from parents o often comes from peers o may be influenced by social identity • forming an identity predicts outcomes o development capacity for intimacy EmergingAdulthood • period between adolescent dependence and full responsibilities of adulthood • somewhat culture-bound • has increased in length What makes you an “adult”? Adulthood and OlderAge People around the world are living longer! What Contributes to Longevity? • Being female • Low stress • Good health habits Physical Changes inAdulthood and OlderAge • Decline in fertility o Especially for women (but also for men) o Starting in 30s • Decline in sexual activity • Decline in strength, stamina, reaction time (relative to when you were younger) Causes and Prevention of Cognitive Decline • Causes o Decreased blood flow o Neuron death o Medical conditions, aged-related diseases (e.g.Alzheimer’s) • Prevention o Physical activity o Mental exercise • Physical Changes inAdulthood and OlderAge o Decline in sensory o Brain volume shrinks Some Final Notes on the Positives of OldAge • Positive emotions • Control over emotions • Attention to negative aspects of environment • Concern with what others think What Contributes to Well Being inAdulthood and OldAge? • Love o Commitment (via marriage/civil union) ▯ longer lasting o Marriage ▯ happiness, health, income, sexual satisfaction ▪ 5:1 positive : negative o children (caveats) • work… o that fits interests o that provides a sense of accomplishment and competence Social Psychology • What is it? o How we behave around others o What we think about ourselves and others o How we are influenced by others o Power of situational/social factors Social Thinking:Attributions andAttitudes • Situational attributions ▯ explanations for someone’s behavior relative to the situation o Quick test environment, test was easy • Dispositional attributions ▯ based on their habits/disposition o Mary is smart, good test taker, she cheated o Recently fired, college student paying for loans FundamentalAttribution Error • Overestimating disposition (personality) and underestimating situation o We are committing fundamental attribution error (FAE) Williams College Study • Students’judgments of woman’s personality unaffected by how they were told she was instructed to act Quiz Show Study • Participants randomly assigned, quizmaster made up questions, contestant answered, audience watched (knew design study) • How did “audience members” judge them? • Audience almost always thought Quizmaster was smarter • Less common when explaining our own behavior ▯ why? ▯ see yourself in situations ▯ except…when we are explaining our own positive actions o We tend to make dispositional Attitudes • Fairly stable evaluation of something as good or bad • Makes us think, feel, or behave positively or negatively about some person, group, or social issue Attitude Change by Others • Central route to persuasion (ex. Political figure) • Peripheral route to persuasion (ex. Celebrity endorsement) Attitude Change: Persuading Ourselves! • Cognitive dissonance o Inconsistency between your beliefs and behavior Causes discomfort ▪ ▪ Motivated to reduce inconsistency – how? o Example: smoking cigarettes is unhealthy ▯ unpleasant tension state ▯ I smoke cigarettes Smoking cigarettes are unhealthy; I don’t smoke cigarettes anymore ▪ ▪ The research on smoking is not conclusive; I smoke cigarettes o Cognitive dissonance explains why we value things in life that cause suffering Foot-in-the-door Phenomenon • Large “drive carefully” sign on your lawn? o 17% said “ok!” • small sign in your window (“ok!”), then large sign on lawn? o 76% said “ok!” Playing a Role • means behavior change • then pretend becomes real behavior • attitudes shifted in line with behavior Social Influence: Conformity, Obedience, and Groups Automatic Mimicry • mirroring others’postures, behavior, moods Conformity • adjusting our thinking or behavior to a group standard (consensus) SolomonAsch’s Conformity Studies • line studies • variations o culture o group size o co-dissenter ▪ who gave right answer ▪ who gave another wrong(er) answer • why do we conform? o Informational influence ▪ What happens when task is more difficult? o Normative influence What happens when make private judgments? ▪ Obedience • Changing your behavior because someone tells you to • Germans as especially obedient people? o OR • Situational factors that “pulled” for obedience? Stanley Milgram’s Obedience Studies • Newspaper advertisement o Study of how punishment affects learning • Teacher o Read words and administer punishment • Learner o Learn and repeat words • With each “error” required to increase the “punishment” • “learner” was a confederate; “punishment” was staged • the “learner’s” response is increasingly distressed • eventually, just ominous silence • how far did participants go? o 65% continued until the end of the board!!! • (check out table on moodle) Social Facilitation • presence of others ▯ arousal ▯ strengthens dominant response Social Loafing • diminished effort when performing in a group o why? Deindividualation • losing awareness of yourself as an individual • likely with high arousal, anonymity o e.g. riots, looting, internet trolls, Yik Yak Group Polarization • enhancement of a group’s tendencies through discussion within the group Groupthink • harmonious but unrealistic thinking that sometimes occurs in groups o how to prevent? Preventing Groupthink • welcome varied opinions • invite exp
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