PSYC 110- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 59 pages long!)

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12 Oct 2017
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Lafayette
PSYC 110
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Development
Before Birth (Prenatal)!
Prenatal Development
Zygote: fertilized egg (fertilization – week 2)
Embryo: mass of cells attached to uterus (weeks 3-8)
Fetus: growth, development, learning (weeks 9-birth)
oSound of mom’s voice
oLanguage
oAdaptation/habituation
Newborns
What can newborns do and how do we know?
Habituation Task
Decrease in responding after increase in stimulation
Modified pacifier to help decipher what they learned in utero
What Else Can a Newborn Do?
Grasp, rooting, and sucking reflexes
oRooting is stroke cheek and turn mouth toward stroke
Help find food for survival
Newborns prefer sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness and connection
Infants who are just a few days old will imitate others’ faces
Infancy and Childhood
Brain Maturation and Infant Memory
Infantile amnesia
o3 years old: earliest conscious memories
brain still developing
no language
Motor Development
worldwide, children seem to pass developmental milestones
oin some order
oat the same general ages
…with a few exceptions
one year is first words and starts to walk
environment and genes matter!
Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget
ostudied his own children
ochild’s mind is qualitatively different from an adult’s
ostruggle to make sense of experience = driving factor
table 5.1
Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2)
object permanence (~6 months)
assimilation vs. accommodation
oassimilation = helicopter
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oaccommodation = start to separate
Preoperational Stage (2-6/7 years)
able to represent things with words and images but cannot perform mental operations
at first
ofailure of conversation
ocan’t take another person’s perspective (egocentrism)
preschoolers and the false-belief test (egocentrism)
Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years)
inability to reason about theoretical
inability to reason deductively
oe.g., if A&B are true, must C be true?
Formal Operational Stage (12-adult)
can reason abstractly
can reason in a moral way
New Evidence
general sequence: pretty universal
boundaries between “stages” less clear
some abilities emerge earlier than thought
some abilities are there (nearly) from birth!
Social Development
what is attachment?
oEmotional tie with another person
How does it form?
oHarlow et al. 1971
Attachment
Harlow’s studies on attachment
The roots of attachment lie in comfort and security, not provision of physical needs
oPrimary caregiver in secure case
Some Species Imprint During a Critical Period
-imprinting - the process by which certain animals form strong attachments during early
life
Attachment in humans
oAbout 60% of babies are securely (play happily, seek out, upset when mom or dad
leaves) attached
oAbout 40% are insecurely (anxious or avoidant relationship with caregiver)
attached
How to Assess Attachment
Strange situation procedure (Ainsworth, 1979)
oUnfamiliar setting
oMom is present, then leaves
oWhat happens when she leaves? When she returns?
What Decreases Secure Attachment?
Inconsistent/insensitive parenting
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