[NURS 3331] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 42 pages long Study Guide!

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7 Feb 2017
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LaGrange College
NURS 3331
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Pharmacology Chapter 12
Basic Principles of Neuropharmacology
Neuropharmacology:
Neuropharmacology = study of drugs that alter things controlled by nervous system
Neuropharmacologic drugs = effects = equivalent to excitation or suppression of
neuronal activity.
2 categories
Peripheral Nervous System drugs
Central Nervous System drugs
Therapeuticfrom depressionepilepsyhypertensionasthma
25% of this text is dedicated to them
Help the body help itself = coaxing body to perform natural processes = benefits patient
Nervous system = regulates = practically all bodily processes = all can be altered by
drugs that alter neuronal regulation
Mimic/Block neuronal regulation, these drugs can modify things like:
Skeletal muscle contraction
Cardiac output
Vascular tone
Respiration
GI Function
Uterine motility
Glandular Secretions
Unique to CNS- ideation,
mood, pain perception
Central Nervous System is more complex than the Peripheral Nervous System =
Peripheral Nervous System = more accessible to experimentation
How Neurons Regulate Physiologic Processes:
You have to know how neurons regulate body function when drugs are absent To know how
the impact of drugs on neuronal regulation of bodily function
Neurons elicit responses from other cells
Two cells: (figure 12-1)
1. Neuron
2. Postsynaptic Cell (which could be-neuron/muscle cell/cell within secretory gland)
Two steps that influences postsynaptic cell behavior:
1. Axonal conduction; conducting an action potential down the axon of the neuron
2. Synaptic transmission; information is carried across the gap between the neuron and
the postsynaptic cell
a. Requires release of neurotransmitter molecules from axon terminalbinding
of these molecules to receptors on postsynaptic cell
b. Result (transmitter-receptor binding) = series of events w/ postsynaptic cell =
change in its behavior
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c. Nature of change = depends on identity of neurotransmitter & type of cell
involved
d. Post synaptic cell a
i. neuron? May increase/decrease firing rate
ii. part of a muscle? May contract/relax
iii. glandular? Increase/decrease secretion
Basic Mechanisms by Which Neuropharmacologic Agents Act:
Sites of Action: Axons Versus Synapses:
Drugs alter one of two neuronal activities
1. Axonal Conduction (only a few)
2. Synaptic Transmission (most neuropharm. agents) (because drugs that alter this can
produce effects that are more selective than axonal conduction)
Axonal Conduction
Not very selective
Conducting an impulse=same in all neurons
Drugs that alter axonal conduction will affect conduction in all nerves that it has access
to
= can product selective effects
Local anesthetics = decrease (alter) axonal conduction
They produce nonselective stopping of axonal conduction = suppress transmission in
any nerve they reach
Local anesthetics = valuable = indications are limited
Synaptic Transmission
Drugs that alter synaptic transmission = highly selective
Because synapses differ from one another
Synapses/at different sites/employ different transmitters
For most transmitters = body employs more than one receptor
AKA using a drug that selectively influences a specific type of neurotransmitter/receptor
= alter only one neuronally regulated process = leaving others unchanged
Receptors
Ability of neuron to influence another cell depends on the ability of that neuron to alter
receptor activity on the targets cell.
Target cell lacks receptors for the transmitter that neuron released, that neuron cant affect the
target cell
Effects of neuropharmacologic drugs = depend on altering receptor activity (they influence
receptor activity on target cells)
Supposedly this is important because its stated in the book twice:
The ipat of a drug o a euroally regulated proess is depedet o the aility of that drug
to directly or indirectly influence receptor activity on target cells
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