Study Guides (238,527)
United States (119,828)
MGT 243 (1)

exam 1 study guide

10 Pages
Unlock Document

Lehigh University
MGT 243
Douglas Mahony

introduction & theories of management understand the causes and impetus for the rise of managerial profession o Industrial Revolution: small workshops replaced by large factories o resolving the principal-agent problem principle-agent problem o misalignment between interests of owner and employee scientific management & its principles o coordination & control of production taken away from workers and given to management o productivity improvements from: • reducing specific jobs to smaller tasks • pay workers incentives to reach production goals problems implementing scientific management o breaks down outside of assembly line o tendency to increase worker alienation & dissatisfaction overall conclusions of the Hawthorne studies & the rise of the human relations movement o Hawthorne studies: finding optimal lighting o conclusions • observation changes behavior • must understand human nature to understand work & improve efficiency • managers should facilitate effective social structure in the workplace o lead to rise of human relations movement theory X vs. theory Y o theory X: people are lazy, need to micromanage, coerce & threaten o theory Y: self direction & self control, reward yields greater commitment job performance importance of focusing on job performance as an outcome of interest o what matters at the end of the day is how well you do your job dimensions of job performance o routine & adaptive task performance o citizenship behaviors o counterproductive behaviors adaptive task performance vs. routine task performance o routine task performance: what you're hired to do, the basics of the job o adaptive task performance: how well do you deal with ambiguity, how do you handle stress, change, transitions • what sets people apart, most important skill • leave it up to you what you want to do/think you should do differing set of citizenship behaviors o voluntary employee activities, positive behavior without expectation of reward • organizational: voice, civic virtue, volunteerism, boosterism • interpersonal: helping, courtesy, sportsmanship o looks good for company, creates overall better workplace counterproductive behaviors o needs to be minimized organizational commitment types of withdrawal behavior as a form of organizational commitment o psychological withdrawal: you're there but you're not paying attention, doing your work • leads to physical withdrawal o physical withdrawal: showing up late, quitting affective commitment o strong emotional attachment to organization o best kind continuance commitment o desire to remain part of an organization due to awareness of costs of leaving o hard to control, not always great performance normative commitment o desire to remain part of an organization due to a sense of obligation drivers of organizational commitment & behavior on the job o affective commitment • help build social relationships o continuance commitment • stock options • benefits tied to seniority • firm specific knowledge • lack of alternatives • financial need o normative commitment • training • education/career opportunities • organizational charitable giving individual differences how sources of individual differences vary along the fixed/changeable continuum o from most fixed to least fixed • culture, ethnicity, personality • values, beliefs • attitudes • emotions, moods big 5 personality dimensions & their work-related decisions making o agreeableness • focus on 'getting along' not necessarily 'getting ahead' o conscientiousness • prioritize accomplishment striving, accomplish task-related goals o extraversion • prioritize status striving • desire to attain power & influence o neuroticism/emotional stability • easily stressed o openness to experience • capacity to generate novel & useful ideas --> artistic & scientific fields locus of control external locus of control internal locus of control • unhappy events in one's life are • people's misfortunes due partly to bad luck result from the mistakes they make • landing a good job depends • success is a matter of mainly on being in the right place at the right hard work, luck has little to do with time it • there's not much use in trying to • people are lonely please people: if they like you, they like you because they do not try to be friendly personality types, tests, and assessments in work related decision making o judgmental- people stereotype themselves & others afterwards o no strong evidence o questionable legality o people lie to be socially desirable o no room for nuances o personality doesn't relate to job performance implications of person-job and person-organization fit o person-job fit • strong positive link to job performance? o person-organization fit • weak positive link to job performance • strong positive link to organizational commitment terminal vs. instrumental values o terminal values: lifelong convictions, desirable states of existence • objectives of the life of a person (ex. freedom, happiness, etc.) o instrumental values: core permanent values that comprise personal characteristics & character traits • preferable modes of behavior (ex. honesty, ambition, etc.) attitudes, emotions o emotions: intense, short lived feelings linked directly to an antecedent or causal event • interrupt thoughts and influence behaviors o attitudes: collection of feelings, beliefs, and thoughts about how to behave that people currently hold job satisfaction o values o personality o facet model: task, variety, identity, significance, autonomy, feedback --> lead to satisfaction with work o Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory: • motivator needs (job characteristics, etc.) influence levels of job satisfaction • hygiene needs (physical/psychological needs) influence whether one is dissatisfied o steady state: changes influence job satisfaction only temporarily, always return to equilibrium o discrepancy model: compare current job with 'ideal job' • manage expectations down • alter job to better match expectations self-efficacy o belief that one is capable of performing a given task, confidence in one's ability to succeed o high self efficacy--> more engaged in tasks--> higher performance motivation drivers of effort o specific, difficult, self-set goals o perceived equity o psychological empowerment: meaningfulness, self-determination, competence, impact needs theories & its managerial implications o Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs & McClelland's Needs o achievement: strongest measured relationship to performance • most interested in in personal achievement and less in influencing others • great for early career success but do not always make good managers o power; relatedness/affiliation: the best managers tend to be high in power and low in affiliation o frustration-regression: while it may not work the way Maslow suggests, we know that inability or difficulty achieving higher-order needs may cause shift in importance of lower-order needs expectancy theory & its managerial implications o expectancy: belief that one's effort will result in attainment of desired performance goals o management needs to manage the importance placed on the rewards • outcomes are deemed more valuable when they help satisfy needs equity theory & how it relates to the workplace o people tend to keep a 'mental ledger' of the outcomes, then engage in 'cognitive calculus' o an imbalance triggers equity distress -an internal tension that can only be alleviated by restoring balance to the ratios o what can we learn from equity theory? • an individual's intensity and persistence of effort is, in part, driven by their own equity perceptions, not someone else's • perceptions are fraught with error maintaining perceived equity in the workplace o sense of equity (ratio of outputs/inputs is the same) • no action needed o under rewarded equity (your ratio is less than other's ratio) • grow your outputs • reduce your inputs • easier to reduce inputs so most likely in this case the employee will stop trying as hard o over rewarded equity (your ratio is greater than other's ratio) • shrink your outputs?? • increase your inputs intrinsically vs. extrinsically motivated behavior o intrinsic: performed for it's own sake, behavior gives them a sense of accomplishment, etc. o extrinsic: performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment characteristics of effective goals from goal setting theory o view goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort o characteristics of effective goals 1. specific and measurable 1. defined time period 1. cover key result areas 1. challenging but realistic 1. linked to rewards o subordinate acceptance is critical o causes employees to exert high levels of effort, develop action plans to achieve their goals, persist in the face of obstacles or difficulties o as goal goes from easy to impossible, task performance increases and then hits a peak and goes back down o the dark side of goal setting • ignore or not perform needed activities • less likely to help co-workers job characteristics/job design models
More Less

Related notes for MGT 243

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.