Alcohol Exam 2.docx

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Lehigh University
Sociology and Anthropology
SSP 152
James Mc Intosh

Alcohol Final Review Bold: On his study guide 2 Exam Red: I’m not sure Blue: Not on his study guide but you should know it Test 2  Types of alcohol: methanol/isopropyl/ethanol (what we’re learning)  Knowledge from: rodents & dead drunks! o UCLA scientist reported that his rat colony had approximately the same % of heavy & moderate drinkers and abstainers as found in our human society! o This work contradicts studies that indicate if rats have enough food, ignore alcohol o Report concludes social ambiance is key  Many cultural myths shape our understanding of alcohol– pathological frame  Ingestion is the usual route of the alcohol o 20/25% goes right through the stomach wall into the bloodstream; 80/75% is emptied into the duodenum or small intestine o Within two minutes brain tissue will reflect that you have had a drink  Critical factor influencing the rate of absorption into the bloodstream is the emptying time of the stomach  Fatty foods slow down absorption rate  Important factor is the pyloric valve, a muscular guard over the passage from the stomach to the duodenum o Closes when food is in the stomach o Without food, alcohol has a running start into the blood stream  Optimal concentration of alcohol in terms of opening pyloric valve= 43%/86 proof o Sugar, carbonation, straws, chugging o Employing straws brings extra air into your system and speeds up absorption o Champagne will open pyloric valve quicker than beer & wine unless pounding them in o Sugar in drinks & any carbonated mixer speeds up the move into the bloodstream o Wine coolers with sugar & carbonation are among the fastest o Chugging is also very important as to the speed of alcohol into the blood stream o Too much alcohol arriving– the pyloric valve begins to spasm  Congeners– complex organic molecules that are a byproduct of the fermentation process and also effect emptying time. Lower congeners spirits such as gin and vodka absorbed quicker than scotch and bourbon o The darker the alcohol higher the congeners. So, alcohol like red wine, whiskey, tequila, brandy, and bourbon, contain more congeners than gin or vodka.  Physical and emotional condition matter  No nutrients in alcohol hence empty calories= false energy  The elimination of alcohol from your body is mostly dependent upon the liver Detoxification  Alcohol is converted by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) to ACETALDEHYDE which in turn is converted to acetic acid by enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and acetate metabolized to C02&H20  Liver’s oxidizing function kicks in ASAP  Consuming at a faster rate than the detox ceiling– means BAC is rising and more alcohol is floating about in your circulatory system  Liver metabolizes .05 oz. of alcohol hourly  Overload means you are drinking more than the 1 standard drink per hour  Alcohol is at home in water-logged CNS  Basic unit of the CNS is the neuron/cell • Each cell sends and receives chemical messages relying on electrical impulses either as a stimulus or inhibitor– neurotransmitters • Dopamine when released in the pleasure center of the brain causes euphoria • Case in the early stages of drinking– one or two drinks • As a person drinks more, dopamine is depressed– biphasic • Serotonin controls moods like depression/anxiety/sleep • GABA controls inhibitions • Alcohol closes down or alters the normal operation of the CNS • Depression of the medulla oblongata (automatic involuntary actions) occurs from alcohol • How much is too much? NOT KNOWN • Measure of the degree of intoxication is one’s blood alcohol concentration • BAC is a measure of % of grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood • 100 grams = .10 • 0.08% United States • 0.01% U.S. operators of common carriers, such as buses • U.S. pilots, Federal Aviation Regulation 0.04% within eight hours of consumption • BAC = • 0.05 Lowered alertness, release of inhibitions, impaired judgment • 0.10 Slower reaction times, impaired motor function, less caution • 0.15 Large, consistent increases in reaction time • 0.20 Marked depression in sensory and motor capability, intoxication • 0.25 Severe motor disturbance, staggering, great impairment • 0.30 In a Stupor but conscious– no comprehension of what’s going on • 0.35 Surgical anesthesia; about LD minimal level causing death • 0.40 About LD 50 • 12 oz. beer, 5% alcohol by volume= 5 oz. wine, 10% alcohol by volume= one and 1/2 oz. cocktail, 40% alcohol by volume • All these drinks have an equal amount of pure alcohol in them but volume varies (ABV) • Alcohol is expected to deliver something, a cue that brings to mind something + or – • Social lubricant/calm the nerves • Discriminating cue– something in the future • Reinforcing cue– something in the past • Often a discriminating cue comes from a re-enforcing cue • Affect amnesia– Don’t remember any of the negatives, impacts Policy implication because we cannot have confidence in memories of parties, so we don’t learn • Blackouts– no recall at all (en bloc) or fragmentary • Blackouts are likely the result of interruption of the conversion of short term memory to long term memory • State dependent learning– information under the influence of alcohol may be recalled better under the influence again • Dichotomy of rewards and punishment • B. F. Skinner has established that any consequence that plays a role in a behavior being repeated is a reinforcement • Getting drunk reinforces getting drunk, but that needs further explanation. • Why do we drink? Simplistic answer– peer pressure; but why do people drink to excess? • Tolerating drunkenness, among various cohorts or groupings • Tolerating negative consequences • Absence of ritualized use • Absence of youth socialization to alcohol • Recreational drinking separate from meals • Idea that one could be addicted to alcohol developed in the 19 century th • Disease model from Rush takes over a century before it makes serious headway • Start to move away from the PEOPLE and to the BOTTLE • Of particular importance is the medical claims of the ability to cure insanity; Success of labeling insanity as a disease makes it easier for chronic inebriation as a disease to be accepted • Establishment of Alcoholics Anonymous in mid-1930s represents major development • AA definition of alcoholism: “an obsession of the mind and an allergy of the body” • A turning point in the disease model evolution: E. M. Jellinek, professor of applied physiology at Yale helps set up a summer school of alcohol studies • CREATED AN UNDERSTANDING OF ALCOHOLISM • Different types of alcoholics • Typologies can vary • Gamma still used by alcohol counselors • APLHA • Psychologically dependent on alcohol– problem drinkers • Drink at wrong times; can abstain • BETA • Develop serious physical problems; not physically or psychologically dependent • Drink despite an ulcer or kidney problems • “Medical type” is perhaps a more apt label • GAMMA– most common • Garden variety specie • Physically and psychologically dependent • Gamma might be an alpha in early stages • Progressive drinkers who develop serious social and physical problems • Keep on drinking until they hit bottom • Prototype of AA membership • DELTA • Maintenance drinkers • Drink all day • Not aware of the physical dependence • EPSILON • Go on binges or sprees of drinking– periodic alcoholics • Can go a long time without drinking • ZETA • Pathologically intoxicated; violence entertains the zeta • Jellinek’s other contribution was the phase model of alcoholism • An alcoholic passes through a pre-alcoholic phase, prodromal phase, crucial phase and a chronic phase • Pre-alcohol phase • Motivation is social activity– finds stress relief • Seeks out drinking situations– TGIF, cocktail hour, after work or a game • Eventually connects stress relief with alcohol • May last a few months, few years or more • Often related to age and resources • The prodromal phase • Arrives without warning– blackouts signaled it • Prodromal means signaling disease • The phase may last a few years: sneak drinks– gulp drinks– feel guilty about it– pre- occupied with alcohol • Organizes life around drinking– holidays “Do I have enough?” • The crucial phase • Loss of control– regular efforts to quit– strategies are developed: no booze until 5pm or only on MWF or I’ll only drink beer • Once a drink is taken, a drunk is created • Rationalizations, resentful and remorseful denial is an art form; first DWI arrest; AM drinking; perhaps hospitalization  Chronic phase • Surrender to alcohol • Benders, toots, binges are frequent events • Impairment of thinking – paranoia common • Job loss a certainty, spouse likely to leave • Loss of tolerance and denial is absurd • Hitting bottom, the alcoholic maybe open to help as all else fails– if not, death • Press picked up 1 drink= drunk so it lead to the disease model stressing abstinence was the only cure– debatable • Jellinek started a discussion that is still in progress • Emphasis on the disease model– the basis is optimism of the medical model • Emphasis on progressive nature– phases, occasional binge is not alcoholic disease • Emphasis on types– not all alcoholics are alike, treatment may vary by types  Critiques of himself o Gamma and delta varieties, each involving physiological changes & progression of symptoms, were diseases. o Alpha & epsilon are, however, symptoms of other disorders (depression)  By more adequately classifying & categorizing the phenomena of alcoholism, he brought scientific order to a field that formerly had been dominated by beliefs Basic Beliefs of the disease mod
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