Alcohol exam 1.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Lehigh University
Sociology and Anthropology
SSP 152
James Mc Intosh

Alcohol Final Review Bold: On his study guide 1 Exam Red: I’m not sure Blue: Not on his study guide but you should know it Antiquity  Alcohol discovered, not invented! o Beer 7/6000BC? Wine 6000BC?  Alcohol in antiquity is beer, wine & mead– no hard liquor or whiskey  Fermentation o Alcohol content = 2 to 6 % o Wine is fermented, grape skin breaks releasing yeast & sugar  Beer was used as a medium of exchange and regarded as an important medicinal solution  Women produced the family beer daily  Life De Novo = new life! A creation of the gods– beer and wine were deified and offered to gods. o Osiris, powerful God, who controlled wine production  Along with alcohol comes control: Hammurabi o 2225 BC Codes of Hammurabi  Medium of exchange = grain not gold  No price-cutting; no happy hours (2 for 1!)  If a riot starts in your bar, you need to bring them to the palace. If you don’t, penalty is death.  Nuns (or all women?) can’t drink or they’ll be set on fire. o Note: These laws deal with the operation of the tavern and not drunken behavior o The rules address the proprietors and women  Positive Functions: Thirst quenchers – food – medicinal – work relief – party or socializing role  Mesopotamian goddess of beer was Ninkasi Greeks  The Golden Age of Greece – reference to Athens & Sparta 1300 & 800 BC  Wine was the chosen drink for symposia, a drinking party open to men only o Most symposiums were not free-wheeling drinking affairs o They were ritualized events with specific rules o Often philosophical discussions dominated o Women not permitted except for hetaera (highly educated, sophisticated companions >loss of control activities: empty stomach– contests (dice drinking)– toasts– feather vomiting– powdered pumice/raw onions: all of these were common practices  Attribution theory: Does prodigious (great in extent) drinking create a kind of person? Does alcohol produce the real you? The Feudal Era to Late 18 Century  Nobles lived well– meat and fish for diet  Wine was the for the aristocracy  Alcohol not always high quality o Storage issues o Greeks & Romans stored their wine in airtight, ceramic amphorae while the Europeans stored wine in wooden casks  Drinking began with breakfast (usually beer/ale) and went on all day  Factors mitigated against drunkenness o Staggered drinking o Drank small ale– alcohol content +-2% o Used wort–initial mesh that was re-used o Starchy diets (bread and potatoes)  At monasteries wine was often the breakfast drink of choice  Monks made high quality of beer and wine and began to sell to towns people o Royalty could not tax the Monks’ wine and beer production; saw the potential revenue stream and shut down monk’s breweries o Encouraged others to develop breweries that could be taxed  The importance of alcohol is seen in the fact it was the only product regulated– indicates importance of a good supply of ale or beer as a governing tool  King Ethelbert: first Christian king; year 600; issued laws giving the crown control over all pubs– publicans paid license fees and taxes  King Henry III created the position of Royal Ale Taster (a traveling inspector) o Standards must be met and prices were set by the King  Curfew laws passed; no children/servants allowed to drink; a limit per person= 1hr/day in a tavern; closed during divine services; no dice nor disorder permitted  No laws against drunkenness!  Hops introduced to beer– Preservative o Allowed increase in strength– 2/3%4/6% o Becomes a trade commodity  Distillation appears around 1100 o Wine distilled into brandy or aqua vitae o Mthacle medicine even apothecaries carry it  12 century bring evidence of student drinking problems – seminary students Protestant Reformation arrives 1500s  Martin Luther and John Calvin opposed only excessive drinking  Luther: o “It is possible to tolerate a little elevation, when a man drinks a drink or two too much after working hard and when he is feeling low but to sit day and night pouring it in and pouring it out again is piggish” o “Who loves not women, wine and song, remains a fool his whole life long”  Calvin: o Calvin efforts to establish sumptuary laws (reflect religious beliefs) failed o Creates evangelical refreshment houses in Geneva as an effort to create a city of saints o Experiment in piety lasted 3 months– was not profitable nor paying taxes  Anabaptists and Hutterites o Complete abstinence from alcohol o Important aspect of the Reformation and alcohol– separated the sacred and the secular worlds. o Civil authorities should deal with drunks o New relationship between 2 institutions…. Gin craze in London (1700-1750)  The monarchy and the parliament created the conditions that provide the basis for it o King’s War with France and Spain leads to the banning of imported spirits and wine, causes a loss of revenue  To pay for the war, MP break distilling monopoly, rely on new production of English spirits and wine and tax them  ½d, the typical price for gin while ale was 2d  Women were over-represented in the retailing of gin and in the consuming of it o This led to the feminizing of gin into Madam Geneva or Mother Geneva o In the business end of gin, women were at the lowest rungs– as retailers  It did not require a large
More Less

Related notes for SSP 152

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.