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BIOL 102 Midterm: BIOL 102 exam 1 study guide

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Liberty University
BIOL 102
Terry Spohn

BIOL 102 Notes Liberty University Dr. Spohn Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Living Things General Definitions Chemistry is the study of matter and energy that relates to how things combine, break apart, and rearrange Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space; composed of elements *equivalent to weight for this course Elements are fundamental forms of matter that cannot be broken down into a simpler form o Periodic table of the elements organizes them Atoms are the smallest functional unit of an element o Nucleus (central core) Protons (+) have mass Neutrons (o) have mass o Shells surround nucleus Electrons () have no discernable mass All atoms want their outer shell to have max number of e or 8e (1 : 2; 2 : 8;nd 3 : 8) Atomic symbol is one or two letters representing an element Atomic number is the number of p (also the number of e before a reaction happens) + o Mass number roughly equals p + n Isotopes have a different number of n than usual o Same atomic number (p ) but different atomic mass (varying number of n ) o o Radioisotopes are unstable isotopes Give off energy (in form of radiation) and particles to try to become stable (can change into completely different element) Scientific and medical uses: Carbon14: used for dating fossils (because when you die, you stop exchanging C with the atmosphere) Diagnostic imaging Cancer treatment Power supply for implants (ie pacemakers) Energy Fuels Lifes Activities Energy is the capacity to do work o Potential energy is stored energy (can be turned into kinetic) o Kinetic energy is energy in motion, doing work E have potential energy (each shell corresponds to a specific level of potential energy: further shells have more energy thus bigger atoms are more powerful) Atoms are most stable when outermost shell is full or has 8e Atoms will interact with other atoms to fill their outermost shells (or reach 8) Chemical Bonds are attractive forces that hold atoms together (molecules) Molecule is two or more atoms chemically bonded together
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