PSYC 255 Study Guide - Spring 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Internal Validity, External Validity, Dependent And Independent Variables

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PSYC 255
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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PSYC 255
Psychology- answers questions about behavior and mental processes
Behavior can be observed
Mental processes cannot be observed
o Rely on self-report to gather data
Research impacts culture, and culture impacts research
Science in context
Science can only suggest, not prove
CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION
Empirical Approach
Empiricism
o Knowledge based on observations
Data are central
Scientists do not work in isolation- replication
Science is adversarial
o Has to be falsifiable
Science has to be peer reviewed
Goals of research:
1. Describe
2. Predict (correlation dos not determine cause)
3. Determine cause
a. Must have the following to determine cause
i. Temporal precedence
1. Meaning you know which variable came first
ii. Covariation
1. Changes in x cause changes in y
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iii. Elimination of alternative explantations
1. Controlling all other factors to prove single cause
iv. Exploration
1. Why?
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Document Summary

Psychology- answers questions about behavior and mental processes: behavior can be observed, mental processes cannot be observed, rely on self-report to gather data. Research impacts culture, and culture impacts research: science in context, science can only suggest, not prove, correlation does not equal causation. Empirical approach: empiricism, knowledge based on observations, data are central, scientists do not work in isolation- replication, science is adversarial, has to be (cid:862)falsifiable(cid:863, science has to be peer reviewed. Basic research: answers fundamental questions about behavior, not specific problems, just basic. Applied: address practical problems, seek potential problems. Hypothesis: statement about something that might be true, tentative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to support or refute. It is hypothesized that if x then y. Where do research ideas come from: common sense, observation, serendipity, theory, coherent and systematic, organize and explain, generate new knowlesge, not your own idea, but an actual scientific theory, modified depending on new research, past research, practical problems.

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