Study Guides (238,280)
United States (119,722)
Music (1)
MUSC 103 (1)

MUSC 103_Exam1Notes.doc

10 Pages
Unlock Document

Liberty University
MUSC 103

MUSC 103 Notes for Exam 1: Parts. VII and II (Medieval & Renaissance/Nonwestern) (pp. 389-403, 57-77, 78-83, 84-90) Part VII – Nonwestern Music • Reflects/expresses world’s diversity • Each culture has its music practice o Some have all 3 – folk, pop & classical • These musics influence western music th o True in 20 cent. o French composer – Claude Debussy o British rocker – George Harrison o Jazz artist – john Coltrane Ch. 1 – Music in Nonwestern Cultures Characteristics of Nonwestern Music • It reflects culture o Religion, dance, & drama o Communicates messages & relates traditions • Oral tradition o Frequently transmitted by oral tradition  Music notation far less imp. Than in west. Cult.  Many cultures don’t have music not.  Serves as record ONLY • Improvisation – freq. basic to music o Improve. Usually based on tradition Melodic phrases & rhythmic patterns • Voices – singing usually main way of making music o Vocal approach, timbre & tech. vary thru world Nasal sound, strained tone, throat singing, & many others • Instruments o 4 types based on sound prod. 1. Membranophones – stretched skin (primarily drums) 2. Chordophones – stretched string (Harp-type) 3. Aerophones – performer’s breath (flutes, trumpets, etc) 4. Idiophones – instr. body is sound generator (Bells, gongs, scrapers, rattles, etc.) • Style & app. Within cult. Causes part. Types of instr. to dominate o Strings allow flex. Of pitch o Idiophones/membranophones: rhythmic emphasis o Aerophones aid in outdoor performance • Geography & material avail. Influences • Religion also inf. Instrument. Melody, Rhythm & Texture • Most nonwestern musics are monophonic o Sometimes accompanied By drone o Some cult. Use heterophony  All perform same melody with diff. ornamentation • Scales in nonwestern music are freq. quite diff. than western musical scales. o Intervals between tones can be larger or smaller Interaction between nonwestern & western music • Nonwestern music has been greatly impacted by western influences due to: o Inc. urbanization o Spread of tech. o Worldwide access to music • Some governments subsidize traditional music to preserve cultural heritage Ch. 2 – Music in Sub-Saharan Africa • Africa is divided into two parts: above & below Sahara desert o Above: Muslim, Arabic-speaking, music closely related to that of the middle east o Below: extremely diverse, many religions, cult. And lang. (over 700) • Though’ sub-Saharan music is diverse, there are similarities: o Complex rhythms & polyrhythm’s o Percussive sounds o Wide variety of instruments Ensembles o Vocal music usually a soloist & responding chorus • Music in society o Music permeates African life from religion, entertainment & magic to rites of passage o It is so interwoven into life that the abstract word “music” is…not used by many peoples o Closely assoc. with dancing in ceremonies, rituals & celebrations  Dancers freq. play & sing while dancing o Music is a social activity – everyone joins in o No musical notation – passed by oral tradition • Elements of African Music Rhythm & Percussion o Complex rhythms & polyrhythm’s predominate o Dancers choose to follow any of the various rhythms o The body used as an instrument  Clapping, stamping, slapping thigh/chest • Vocal music o Wide variety of sounds, even within a single piece  Call & response extremely common o Percussion ostinato (a repeated rhythm pattern) freq. accompanies. Singers o Short musical phrases repeated to diff. words • Texture o Often homophonic or polyphonic  This is unlike most nonwestern musics • African instruments o Idiophones –  Most common African instrument  Most are of indefinite pitch  Xylophones, a favorite, come in many sizes  “talking drum” with slit in side can produce 2-4 tones (used to communicate) o Membranophones –  Used in many ceremonial & work-pace app. - Drum manf. Often accompany. By special rites  Drums usually played in groups-mult. Players  Variety of shapes, sizes & forms o Aerophones & Chordophones –  Flutes & trumpets (of wood/horn) most common  Reed instruments less widespread  Chordophones plucked or struck, gourd resonators Part II – The Middle Ages & Renaissance (450-1450) Timeline • Middle Ages (450-1450 o Rome sacked by Vandals -455 o Beowulf – c. 700 (epic poem) st o 1 Crusade – 1066 o Black Death -1347-52 o Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales o Joan of Arc executed -1431 • Renaissance (1450-1600) o Gutenberg Bible -1456 (1 major book printed w/ moveable type) o Columbus reaches America -1492 o Leonardo da Vinci: Mona Lisa –c. 1503 o Michelangelo: David -1504 o Raphael: School o
More Less

Related notes for MUSC 103

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.