ANTH 1001 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Zygosity, Protein, Point Mutation

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ANTH 1001
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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1
Jeff Ganucheau
ANTH1001 LECTURES
TEST 1
1/12/18
Carl von Linne (1707-1778)- Swedish botanist
-Better known as Carolus Linnaeus
-Linnaeus was a creationist and an advocate of the Principle of Fixity of
Species: god created all species, and species were immutable and
unchangeable after the creation
Jean-Babtiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
-Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics (First explanation of
how a species can change over time)(Theory of use and disuse)
4 tenets of theory:
-Organism has needs in order to survive
-Needs are met by modification of existing organs or the
production of new organs
-Continued use of an organ leads to an increase in its size and
functional capacity, whereas disuse leads to its degeneration and
loss
-Changes in an organ that occur during ones lifetime are inheritable
and can be passed to ones offspring
Georges Curvier (1769-1832)
-Disagreed with Lamarck
-All organs in the body were harmonious and by changing one of the
organs in the body it would have a negative effect
-Theory of Catastrophism
-In the past, there were a series of sudden, violent geological and
climatic changes that led to the extinction of animals in the affected
region. After the cataclysm subsided, the region was repopulated by
animals from neighboring areas that were similar in appearance-
but not identical with-those that went extinct
Charles Lyell (1791-1875)
-Agreed with Cuvier
-Theory of Uniformitarianism
-Forces existing today that shape the earth are the same as those
that acted in the past
Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
-Essay on the Principle of Population
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2
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
-Theory of Natural Selection to explain transformation of a species over
time
-Observation on Galapagos Islands
Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913)
-Agreed with Darwin and also developed theory that species change by
natural selection.
-Wrote a 3 page paper that was read by Darwin
**Charles DarwinOn the Origin of Species Published in 1859**
Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection
1. Reproductive potential of a population is great, but actual population size
remains stable.
2. Resources in the environments are in limited supply; there is competition
among individuals for the resources.
3. Biological variation is normal in a population.
4. Any hereditary variation that allows an organism even a slight advantage
in competition for resources will be perpetuated. Organisms with the
favorable variations will survive and produce more offspring. Over time,
there will be an increase in frequency of the favorable traits in the
population.
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
-Published his paper on inheritance in 1866
-His work caused no interest in the public until years later
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Document Summary

Linnaeus was a creationist and an advocate of the principle of fixity of. Species: god created all species, and species were immutable and unchangeable after the creation. Theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics (first explanation of how a species can change over time)(theory of use and disuse) Needs are met by modification of existing organs or the production of new organs. Continued use of an organ leads to an increase in its size and functional capacity, whereas disuse leads to its degeneration and loss. Changes in an organ that occur during ones lifetime are inheritable and can be passed to ones offspring. All organs in the body were harmonious and by changing one of the organs in the body it would have a negative effect. In the past, there were a series of sudden, violent geological and climatic changes that led to the extinction of animals in the affected region.

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