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Study Guide Test 2

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTH 1003
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Study Guide Test 2 Anthropology 1003Chapter 5Making a LivingDefine and give characteristics of each subsistence strategy oldest to newest which strategies are better for nomads or sedentary communities can it support a large or small population density etcFORAGINGUntil about 10000 years ago humans lived by this wayhunting and gatheringForaging relies on food naturally available in the environmentStrategy for 99 of the time humans have been on EarthLimits population growth and complexity of social organizationBetter for NOMADSThey are consistently movingFar less work less danger of droughtdiseaseHORTICULTURE Production of plants using non mechanized technologyTypically a tropical forest adaptation that requires cutting and burning the jungle to clear fieldsBetter for sedentary communitiesSupports a smaller populationdoes NOT use wider marketsRequires 5 to 6 times more land than is cultivated due to rotation of land usedSwiddenSlash and burnClearing fields by felling trees and burning the brushPASTORALISMCaring for domesticated animals which produce meat and milkInvolves a complex interaction among animals land and peopleFound along with cultivation or trading relations with food cultivators1Transhumant PastoralismaFound mainly in East AfricabPartially NOMAD and SEDENTARYMen and boys move the animals throughout the year as pastures become available at different altitudesclimatic zonesWoman and kids and some men remain at a permanent village site2Nomadic PastoralismaNOMADS The whole population moves with the herds throughout the yearbThere are NO permanent villagesAGRICULTUREProduction of plants using plows animals soil and water controlAssociated withoLarger populationsoSedentary villagesoOccupational diversity and specializationoSocial stratificationoUses same land for extended periods of timeoPeasantsFood producing populations that are incorporated politically economically and culturally into nation statesAgriculture requires intense labor and more capital investmentAgricultural Revolution happened about 10000 years ago for human groups in the Old World and 4000 years later in the New WorldPeople began to domesticate plants and animalsthis led to increased population sedentary lifestyle and more complex social forms statesINDUSTRIALISMThe Industrial Revolution involved the replacement of human and animal energy by machines Each subsistence strategy oSupports a characteristic of population densityoHas a different level of productivity and efficiency Led to population growth expanded consumption of resources internal expansion occupational specialization and a shift from subsistence strategies to wage war from selling products to selling laborFocus is on production of goods and services not foodPercentage of people producing food is very smallToday in the US less than 2 of families farmin early 1900s 23 of families farmedCompare and contrast agricultural revolution to industrial revolutionIndustrial RevolutionFocus is on production of goods and services not food of people producing food is very smalloUS early 1900s 23 of families farmedoUS today less than 2The Industrial Revolution involved the replacement of human and animal energy by machines Each subsistence strategy oSupports a characteristic of population densityoHas a different level of productivity and efficiency The transition to Industrial Economy affected many aspects of societyoPopulation growthgenerates high levels of inequalityoExpanded consumption of resourcesoInternational expansionoOccupational specializationoShift from subsistence strategies to wage labor from selling products to selling laborThe Agricultural Revolution happened about 10000 years ago for human groups in the Old World and 4000 years later in the New WorldIn a typical nonindustrial society more than 80 of the population is involved in food production in a highly industrialized society 10 of the people produce food for the other 90 Traditional vs Modern AgricultureoPeople began to domesticate plants and animalsoThis led toIncreased populationA sedentary lifestyle
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