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Archeaology 2015 Exam 2 (scored 92%)

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ANTH 2015
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SamplingSampling Methods in ArchaeologyoFor survey and excavationoComplete survey or excavation no samplingsurvey the whole siteattempt to gather the entirety of a caseset of casesoPartial survey or excavation sampling of some kind involved not necessarily randomSampling in Regional SurveyRegional FocusoIs it a good way to find sitesoRegional survey in Teotihuacan Valley Mexico very big citycenter of valley with mountains aroundCan see things without shovel testValley divided into 7 areasso that only one area is not concentrated20 random sampleNo TeotihuacanNot a good way to find sitesoCritique of Lewis Binfords emphasis on sampling in regional surveythey did find sites of various sizes in the proportion they existedtheres only one TeotihuacanYou couldnt miss it if you triedLeader of the new archaeology movementOldtimers View on Random SamplingoWaste of energyoToo time consumingoNot as reliable as intuition or knowledgeoNot relevant to ancient civilizationsoReal Mesoamerican Archaeologist RMA character in The Early Mesoamerican Village Random SamplingoNot a discovery techniqueoIs the best way to get a representative sample without total coverageoArcheologists usually dont use random samplingoFinding sitesBest ways to find them are by asking people and by looking for signsArcheologists usually leave some of the sites for future in case of better techniquesSampling UniverseoDefine the area to be surveyed or excavatedoSelect Method selective or randomSampling StrategyoTotal coverageoSelective nonprobabilistic bad wayYou select where to samplemay include personal bias strandlines in OntariooRandom probabilisticgood wayno possibility of biasTotal CoverageoEntire survey area is surveyed and excavatedoGordon Willeys Viru Valley Wild Cane Cay Hatchery West Type of SampleoCompletecomplete coverageno samplingoQuadrantdividing into equal squaresoTransecttrailsused frequently in forested areasdifficult to set upuse shovel testoDogleashspotuse rope to form circle and look for things in the circlecan place it randomly or selectivelyMethod of Sampleoselective random Simple randomdivide into quadrants and pick a randomnumber removes personal biasoHow to Select a Random sampleSelect a table of random numbersPut numbers in a hat close your eyes and pick a percentage then go to those placesGive every place an equal opportunity to be selectoStratified Random Langes Costa Rica Fords TikalYaxha Rices Lake PetenWild cane cayDivided island into 6 sampling areasSimple random sample of each areaMake division based on landscape Widely considered the best overall method in Archaeology ensures diversityoSystematic RandomFirst location chosen randomlyrdNext locations choose at regular intervals ex choose every 3 boxform a patternis a problem if village is systematic builtcan systematic miss everything but still commonly usedoStratified Systematic unaligned random samplea beast not testableoTransect samplingUsed in forested areasTrail cut through forestCan be time consumingWalk and look or shovel test1Starting points randomly selectedTransect 90 degrees to baseline2Both end points of trail randomly selectedpoints joinedlines crossmessier not as commonly used3Lines through sites or rays from center are not randomEx Anabel Fords Belize River surveyoTransects go through known siteslooking for mounds n distribution of sitesoSelective Hunch SamplingUsing your own judgmentknowledgeor intuition about a particular siteSample is not representative of the entire sampling universe site or survey areaNonprobalistic nonrandom not good but used all the timeoWhat is the best kind of random samplingStratified random is the bestTransects good for distributional dataStratified better than simpleStratified systematic unaligned random is unpredictable and no better than simple random James Mueller stratified random transect for distributional data Steven Plog stratified better than simple quadrantsite size and artifact density are important factors to take into accountExcavationArchaeological ExcavationoWhats the difference between an antiquities collector and an archaeologistAntiquities only care about the object itself not the past or culturesCollectors view the object as important while archaeologists view the context of the object as importantArchaeologistoDoes not sellbuy objects and not evaluate themoWhat is ContextThe vertical and horizontal location of an object know exactly where it isThe association of the object with other things cultureoConsider Folsom1926 discovery of stone point embedded in rib cage of extinct bisonThe context indicated people were in the Americas at the same time as iceage animalsBefore this discovery this idea was deniedoSothebys and Christis
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