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Exam 2 Terms (97% in the course

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ANTH 2050
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Exam 2IChapters 34aMiddle PaleolithiciHomo neanderthalensis thrived in Europe between 300000 and 30000 years ago and the earliest anatomically modern humans appeared around 195000 years agobNeanderthal physiologyiLong term inhabitants of Europe and EurasiaiiRobustly built humans with retreating foreheads projecting faces and sometimes brow ridgesiiiExpert hunters capable of intellectual reasoningivBun shaped skullvShorter forearms than modern humans but walked upright just as nimblyviHunted large game1Expert knowledge of animal habits must come within close range cMousterianiFar more complex toolkit than Acheulian predecessor with many regional variationsiiStyle of predominately flint tools associated with Homo neanderthalensis and dating to the middle Paleolithic eraiiiMade of flakes points and scrapersivMost were composite made of more than one component1A point a shaft and the binding that secured the head to the shaft to make a spear dLevalloisiA type of Mousterian technique that produces broad flat flakes large blades and triangular points highly developed eFunerary behaviorsiNeanderthals sometimes buried their dead in small pits sometimes with grave goodsiiAmud cave infant found in a natural niche in the side of the cave with the upper jaw of a red deerfModern humansiRefers to all members of the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens 1Includes all living humansiiModern human traits1Globular braincase reduced brow ridges unique pelvic shape reduced body mass vertical forehead pronounced chin narrow trunk reduced tooth size iiiCroMagnon man found in southern France in 18681First fossil found of modern human ivEvolved in tropical Africa by 150000 years agovBy 90000 years ago they had settled in Southwestern Asiavi45000 years they developed a fully modern intellectual abilities and new toolkits and had by then settled in New Guinea and AustraliaviiDuring the late Ice Age they adapted to the extreme cold of Europe and Eurasia crossing into the Americas and temperatures rose and ice sheets retreated gModels on the origins and spread of modern humansiMultiregional model1Evolutions of homo erectus in several places2Gene flow between geographically separated populations prevented speciation3All living humans derive from the species Homo erectus that left Africa4Natural selection in regional populations responsible for regional variants races5Says humans were all in different places and all evolved into the exact same thing6Not very likelyiiOut of Africa model
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