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Exam 3 (scored 92%)

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ANTH 2050
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The moundbuildersThe archaic period in North AmericaoEquivalent to Mesolithic in eurioeoPeriod of intensive foragingoCa 80001000 BCvaries from region to region oEnds with adoption of farmingoOverall relatively smallscale societies with some exceptions ex moundbuildersMoundbuilders overviewoEastern region of north AmericaoAs early as 3000 BC to colonial periodoDifferent groups Adena Hopewell kississippianoFrom archaic through Mississippian oFuelled erocentered mythology oComplex societies with chiefsoAgricultureoLong distance exchange networksoEconomic and craft specializationoMonumental architechture and earthworkex moundsoMounds have different functionsburial residential ceremonialoDifferent periods archaic wooldland adena Hopewell and mississppioSome mounds are rounded others are flat top others are in the shape of effigyex serpent mound in ohioMoundbuilders fiction and mythoName given to imaginary race believed to have built the moundsoThat race was believed to be giantoProblemearly European settlers did not believe that native americans could have built those moundsoSome early myths VikingsAncient world immigrantsgreeks aficans Chinese lost tribe of IsraelBook of Mormonmesopotamian groups Cyrus Thomasone of the first to realize true nature of the moundso1894bureau of American ethnologyoConclusionsearthworks built by native americansoThomas Jefferson had reached similar conclusions earlierChronologyoArchaic period ca 2500100BC Poverty pointLsu moundsoWoodland period ca 1000 BC to colonial periodAfter archaic periodAdena culture in ohioHopewell culture in IllinoisMississippian culture AD 9001450Mounndbuilders backgroundoNeed to look back to late archaic periodoAt that time use of domesticated plantsas early as 2500 BCoSquash gourd goosefoot marsh elder sunfloweroBy about 2000 BC evidence of social differentiationIndividuals buried with bead shell adormments copper red ochreBy 1500 BC in Midwest and sw united states agriculture widespreadoMoundbuilders backgroundStone grinding toolsCermaicsFood storage pitsPopulation growthClaims of landscapePopularity of agriculturePoverty pointoSite on NE LouisianaoRecognized as archaeological in 1950soEarthwork during late archaic 1200700 BCoTo build in 500 years 100 people20 days per year oBuilt during late archaic ca 1200700 oSix concentric ridgesoWooden structuresoHearths and pits at center residential use Feasting useoFive moundsLargest 20 m high x 200 m longPoverty point roles and functionmsoCongregation placeoImportant residential populationoCraft production and socialization Long distance tradeFlint chert jasper hematite slate galena copperoContact as far as Great Lakes
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