ANTH 2051 Study Guide 1a (got 94% in the course)

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Louisiana State University
ANTH 2051

Exam 1 Study GuideThe great chain of beingAn assumption about stasis rather than change It assumed that the world was only a few thousand years old that its fundamental design had always existed as God had created it and that it had changed little since creationEternal hierarchyMineralsPlants InsectsReptLow MammalsHumansAngels GodCatastrophismA theory that the earth had changed only though major catastrophes set in motion by God like the Great flood detailed in the Bible This early form of catastrophism thus helped to explain modifications within the Great Chain of Being and allowed the hierarchy of living things to remain intact and staticLyells uniformatismSir Charles Lyell Principles of Geology He challenged catastrophism by advancing a geological theory positing that the earths physical features result from steady gradual processes The earth was now thought to be millions not thousands of years old due to close observation of geological forms like Grand Canyon Geological change although continuous is nondirectional and nonprogressiveMisunderstandings of DarwinDarwin suggested that changes in the environment wielded a pressure on all living things to change so that they might survive through time Natural Selection pressure to reproduce and reproduction People tend to incorrectly think that evolutionprogressMorgans social evolutionismth19 century Anthropology Held that all human ways of life passed through similar sequences or stages of development Social evolutionists like Lewis Henry Morgan argued that all human beings could be categorized within this sequence of development with socalled savages on bottom barbarians in the middle and the civilized at the top Spencers survival of the fittestAlthough Darwin would use fitness to describe an individuals biological ability to reproduce within a breeding population Spencer coined survival of the fittest to advance his own ideas about the socalled favored races of humanity Significantly Spencer used Darwins natural more fit or favored human societies and groups prevailing over less fit and less favored societies This resulted in social Darwinism and scientific racism see belowth19 century scientific racism
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