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ASTR 1101
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ASTRONOMYMidterm to FinalWATER ON MARSIOld MarsADendritic canals running downhill shows riverbedsBGrand Canyon like holes that were dug out by running waterCCraters with tear dropped landmarks around them show islands that used to be surrounded by water from flash floodsDWarm and wet warm enough to have liquid water due to atmosphereEThick CO2 atmosphere or else the water would boil away can raise temperature on Mars to above the freezing point of water FUncertainties 1How long did the warm and wet conditions last2How deep was the ocean3Where did all the water go Some to the North and South ice cap some frozen in permafrost some in atmosphereIIMars nowANorth polar ice cap contains frozen water ice and dry ice BFrozen lake looking things inside of cratersCSplash marks coming out from craters splash marks come from the impact of the object hitting Mars DPermafrost frozen water under the surfaceEHydrogen trapped just below the surface of MarsFMars has very thin atmosphere and small amounts of water is found here IIIMars meteoritesAAsteroid hits Mars and rocks are thrown off into space and some leave Mars and orbit the sun until some randomly meet the orbit of Earth and falls to the EarthBMeasuring isotope ratios in the rocks to tell us that they came from Mars isotopes are like fingerprintsIVMethane on MarsAEpisodic and localized BCuriosity didnt find any maybe it wasnt looking in the right time or placeVAsteroid BeltABetween Mars and Jupiters orbit BWhere the majority of the asteroids in the solar system areCSome are farther away from the belt and closer to Earth these are the ones that have a chance of hitting us DAsteroids have orbits similar to planetsESpacecraft have visited asteroids1First visitedGaspra2We have visited 12 asteroids 3This showed us that the asteroid Ida has a moon 4Weve captured 2 asteroidsVIMeteorsAWhen an asteroids gets hitsmashed small rocks get thrown off and fall into their own orbit some of these orbits will pass Earths orbit some may even pass through Earths atmosphere these are called meteorsBSeen best after midnight after eyes have adjusted to the dark in areas with open horizon away from light with a dark sky C30 miles per second DFriction between the rock and the atmosphere is what makes the meteor glow EMost meteors are the size of a small grain of sand FMeteor showersmultiple meteors radiate out of one point in the sky 1Each shower is associated with one particular comet comet is a big dirty ball of ice VIIMeteorities Arocks that are found on the ground that have fallen from the skyBIron 1Density of 810 grams per cubic cm 2Made mostly of iron with a little nickel CStony
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