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Biology Test 2 Notes (got 94% in the course)

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOL 1001
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 4ConceptsUnderstand the cell theoryUnderstand the basic attributes of cellsUnderstand the major features of eukaryotic cellsUnderstand the major features of prokaryotic cellsUnderstand relative size of cells cell parts and other itemsWhat is the Cell TheoryEvery living organism is made of 1 or more cellsThe smallest organisms are single cells and cells are teh functional units of multicellular organismsAll cells arise from preexisting cellsWhat are the Basic Attributes of CellsCell function limits cell sizeMost cells range in size rom about 1 to 100 micrometers in diameterCells need to exchange nutrients and wastes with the environmentNo part of the cell can be too far away from the external environmentAll cells share common featuresThe plasma membrane encloses the cell and allows interactions between the cell and its environmentComposed ofLipidsProteinCarbohydrate moleculesRegulates the passage of molecules in an out of the cellsThe cytoplasm consists of all the fluid and structures that lie inside the plasma membrane but outside of the nucleusThe fluid portion of the cytoplasm cytoplasmic fluid contains water salts and organic moleculesMost of the cells metabolic activities occur in the cells cytoplasmAll cells use DNA as a hereditary blueprintAll cells use RNA to copy the blueprint and to guid construction of proteinsAll cells obtain raw materials and energy from their environmentThe building blocks of biological molecules come from the environmentThere are 2 basic types of cellsProkaryotic cells before the nucleus form the bodies of bacteria and archaea the simplest forms of lifeEukaryotic cells true nucleus form the bodies of animals plants fungi and protistsUsually larger than prokaryotic cellsThe cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells includes a variety of organellesCytoskeleton gives shape and organization to the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cellsWhat are the Major Features of Eukaryotic CellsSome eukaryotic cells are supported by cell wallsCell walls nonliving relatively stiff coatings composed of cellulose and other polysaccharides form the outer surfaces of eukaryotic cellsFungal cell walls are made of polysaccharides and chitinCell walls are porous allowing oxygen carbon dioxide and water carrying dissolved molecules to flow easily through themThe plasma membrane is located just beneath the cell wallThe cytoskeleton provides shape support facilitates cell division and movementOrganelles are attached to a network of protein fibers that make up the cytoskeletonMicrofilaments ThinIntermediate filaments MediumMicrotubules ThickCilia and flagella move the cell through fluid or move fluid past the cellBoth cilia and flagella are slender extensions of the plasma membraneThey arise from a basal body which anchors them to the plasma membraneBasal bodies are derived from centrioles Cilia could be compared to oars and flagella could be compared to an engineThe nucleus is the control center of the eukaryotic cellThe nucleus is an organelle that contains 3 major partsNuclear envelopeChromatinNucleolusThe nucleus is isolated from the rest of the cell by a nuclear envelope that consists of a double membrane perforated by nuclear poresThe membrane is perforated with tiny protein lined nuclear pores that allow water ions and small molecules to pass freelyThe gatekeeper that regulates the passage is called the nuclear pore complexThe nucleus contains chromatin which consists of DNA and proteinsDuring cell division chromatin becomes compacted into long strands called chromosomesThe chromosomes contain genes that provide a blueprint for a huge variety of proteinsBecause proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm copies of the protein blueprints on DNA must leave the nucleus through the nuclear membraneTo do this genetic information in DNA is copied into messenger RNA which travels through the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm where it directs protein synthesisThe nucleolus is the site of ribosome synthesis a ribosome is a small particle composed of ribosomal RNA and proteinsThe nucleolus consists of ribosomal RNA proteins ribosomes in various stages of synthesis and DNAThe eukaryotic cytoplasm includes an elaborate system of membranes
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