Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Part 1 Of 2

6 Pages

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1001

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Aside from water most biologically related molecules contain carbonOrganic molecules are molecules containing carbon and hydrogen Living organisms can synthesize and use this type of moleculeThese have carbon but not hydrogen are not organicExceptions All carbon molecules graphite diamonds coalCarbon dioxideCarbon monoxideOnly living organisms can create organic molecules This is not trueUnder correct conditions organic molecules can form from nonliving materialsAs molecules with in cells interact they change chemically and structurallyThese changes give cells the ability to obtain and use nutrients get rid of waste move and grow and re produceAs you will see these molecules have certain properties that allow for the different interactionsCarbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of molecules Carbon is the key to the great variety of organic molecules that make life on earth possibleCarbon has a valence of 4 Can become stable by bonding with up to 4 others atoms or by forming double or triple bondsCan bind to 2 3 or 4 other atomsAnother factor which leads to the versatility of organic molecules is the attachment of Functional groupsFunctional groups are small characteristic groups of atoms which are frequently bonded to the carbon skeleton of organic moleculesFunctional Groups Table 31Functional groupsHave specific chemical and physical propertiesAre regions of organic molecules which are frequently chemically reactiveBehave consistently from one organic molecule to anotherCan determine the chemical properties of the organic molecule in which they are locatedThere are seven general functional groups found in organic molecules1 Hydrogen GroupH2 Hydroxyl Group OH
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