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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1001
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BIOLOGY 100 TEST 3Chapter 9 Sections 95910How does mitotic cell division workMitosis nuclear division is divided into four phases based on the appearance and behavior of the chromosomesProphase chromosomes condenseMetaphase chromosomes line up in the middleAnaphase pull apart for sister chromatidsTelophase remake nuclear envelopeCytokinesis cytoplasmic division usually occurs during telophase Mitosis ProphaseEarly prophaseChromosomes condenseSpindle microtubules form between centriolesCentrioles move towards opposite sides of cells opposite polesLate prophaseNuclear envelope disappearsCentrioles are at opposite polesSpindle microtubules capture chromosomes at centromeres Mitosis MetaphaseMetaphase the middle stageMicrotubules from either side lengthenshortenChromosomes line up at the equator of the cellMicrotubules are attached to each sister chromatid at an area of the centromere called the kinetochoreMitosis AnaphaseAnaphaseSister chromatids separate each becoming an independent daughter chromosomeoEach pole gets one copy of each parental chromosomePolar microtubules attach to each other and push causing the cell to elongateMitosis TelophaseTelophase the end stageBegins when chromosomes reach the polesSpindle microtubules disintegrateA nuclear envelope forms around each group of chromosomesCytokinesisDuring cytokinesis microfilaments form along the equator of the dividing cell and constrict like the drawstring of sweatpants and squeeze the cell into twoEach daughter cell gets one nucleus and about half of the cytoplasmStiff cell walls prevent the cells from being squeezed into twoVesicles filled with carbohydrates bud off the GolgiThese vesicles line up at the equator and fuse to form the cell plateEdges merge with plasma membraneCarbohydrates become new cell wallsThe cell cycle must be controlledSome cells like skin cells divide frequentlySome cells only divide in response to damage or infectionSome cells like brain heart and skeletal muscle never divide in an adult Most cells of your body are in G1 phase of the cell cycleGrowthfactors stimulate the cell to divideGrowthfactors stimulate the synthesis of cyclinsCyclins bind to Cdks cyclindependent kinases
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