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Exam 2 Info (got 94% in the course)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1002
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Thursday September 13 2012Notes for EXAM 2Chapter 19 Microbes can be found in all three domains of lifeBeing a microbe doesnt allow you to classify it into a domain Nonliving Microbes1Viruses as close to a living thing wo being living 2Viroid even simplersmaller than virusesaNo protein coat no envelope surrounding them are simply fragments of singlestranded RNA with NO protein coatbHijack cells infects primarily plant cells including citrus trees potatoes avocados iPlant susceptible to viral viroid fungal etc infections3Prion clumps appear in brains ex mad cow disease aMutations in cells can produce prions in human brainsextremely rarebMad cow diseaseCreutzfeldtJakob disease cWhat is a prion Is an unusual infectious particle iDoesnt have a genome but DOES have protein it is a protein particle with NO genetic material DNARNA dHow does it make cows sick It causes proteins in the brain to clump together which makes them not functionneurological issues iKurucannibalistic tribe ePrions consist of a protein that is folded wrongmakes other proteins fold wrong fOrigin Prions developed as a byproduct of living organisms You might as well ask the origin of living organisms ProkaryotesBacteriaArchaea domains12000 species described may be 1001000x that numberst1 organism to appear on Earth at least 35 billion years ago Which bacteria do we know the most about The ones that make us sickEcoli Bacteria have cell walls They are semirigidflexible permeable made of peptidoglycan carbohydrate with amino acids attachedpolysaccharide gives bacteria shapes Shapes1Bacillirod2Coccispherical3SpirillaspiralMost bacteria fall into grampositive or gramnegative categories after being tested in a stain Grampositive has two structures plasma membranepeptidoglycan surrounding it A gramnegative has 3 layers plasma membranepeptidoglycan layer is thinouter membrane loses dye that is easily rinses away
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