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Exam 3 Notes (got 93% on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1002
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BIOL 1002Exam 3 notesChapter 43 Organ Systems of flowering plants1When a cell divides the daughter cells grow and they differentiate specialize depending especially on where they are located during developmentaPrimary growthTALLERbSecondary growthFATTER23 types of plant cell tissuesaDermal Tissues epidermisskin generally a single cell layer that covers the plant In the root system it is responsible for absorption of water minerls and nutrients In the shoot system it is responsible for water retention and is aided by a waxy cuticlehydrophobic compound meaning water cant leave the plantbVascular Tissue composed of the xylem and phloem in the plant the pipe system like the blood system in animalsiXylem deadtransports water and dissolved minerals unidirectionalonly goes from the roots up1Tracheids and Vessel elementsdead when they are at functional maturityiiPhloem alivetransports sugars dissolved in water bidirectionalsugar goes from where its coming fromit goes from the source to the sink1The cells that are left behind by the meristems here are ALIVE2Sievetube elementsalive minimalizedcant make their own proteins control metabilism or make decisions about what goes in or out and companion cellshelp the sievetubescontrols what moves into and out of phloemcGround Tissue all nonepidermal nonvascular tissue most of the plant is ground tissueiParenchyma aliveThinwalled live cells Perform most metabolic functions of the plant Where energy is made and used and where compounds are made broken down and used Responsible for photosynthesis food storage synthesis and secretion The ground tissue in leaves and roots are composed of mostly parenchyma cellsleaves photosynthesis root store photosynthetic productsiiCollenchyma alivecells with unevenly thickend walls that lack lignin They are alive at maturity and grouped into strands or cylinders to aid support without constricting growth Often form a honeycomb shape allignment Very flexibleit can bend without breaking easily because of its uneven cell walliiiSclerenchyma deadvery thick walls hardened with lignin for secondary cell walls They are dead at maturiry and give sterngth and support to fully grown parts of the plant Fibers in these occur in groups Sclereids impart hardness to nutshells and the gritty texture of pearsSupport in the phloem and xylum3Primary growth in rootsaPrimary growth in roots lengthens roots from the tips The cells first elongate then mature and differentiate We find undifferentiated cells in the root and 1 the root tip and 2 the pericycle outside of the stelebThe root cap continually makes apical meristemcells by mitosis that slough off to lubricate and help move the soilthey come from the apical meristem at the tip of the root always regeneratingcThe apical meristem produces 3 primary meristemstoward the outside of the rootThese will turn into skin cells or root hairsiProtodermiiGround meristeminbetween the outside and the center become ground tissue of the root the root cortex and store stuffprimarily sugars in the form of starchiiiProcambiumtoward the center of the root Become the vascular stelesome diebecome xylum some livebecome phloemdPericycleoutermost layer of stele retain meristematic capabilities and can produce lateral rootsroot branches The new branches are their own new root with its own tissues and most imortantly its own vascular system that is connected back to its parent vascular systemiAbility to differentiate into ALL cell typesiiLine the stele inner cylinder of the rootiiiHormones are responsible for telling them when root branches formeEndodermisinnermost layer of the cortex This is hydrophobic like the waxy cuticle of the shoot It is a very hard to penitrate barrier These cells regulate the flow of substances into the vascular tissues xylem and phloem of the stele Its a wall within a wall fCasparian StripWaxy substance wrapped around endodermis that disallows flow of substances except through the endodermal cells themselvesH20 can no longer manover between the cells without actually entering them4Primary growth in ShootsaPrimary growth in shoots lengthens from the tips As the tips grow upthe apical meristem leaves behind the same 3 primary meristems as in the roots undifferentiated cells in 3 types iProtodermtoward the outsideThese will turn into skin cells and some skin cells of maybe a leaf 1 type will give off a waxy cuticle to prevent water loss 1 type will become leaf hairs and 1 type will become stomataiiGround meristeminbetween the outside and the center become ground tissue iiiProcambiumtoward the center Become the vascular stelesome diebecome xylum some livebecome phloembPericycyle in roots is equivelant to axillary buds in shootsthey become branches in the shoot system both controlled by hormonescLeaves arise from leaf primordia on the flanks of the apical meristemthey can be spaced across from each other opposite from each other or alternating all the way upiLeaves have all 3 types of tissue develop from islands of dAxillary buds that could produce lateral branchesmeristematic cells left at the bases of leaf primordiastill baby undifferentiated cells but they arent actively dividing anymore
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