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Biology Notes Final Exam (97% in the course

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1002

Biology Notes 4RespirationCellular respiration mitochondrion multi membrane organelle has ability to pump protons across membrane Proton is a hydrogen ion cannot go through membrane they need helpATP synthase allows protons to pass thru oRequires glucoseoNeed oxygen in final steps to produce ATP1Done by mitochondria aMitochondria located in cells2Mitochondria requires oxygen3Generates carbon dioxide as a waste4ATP energy generated during this processGlucose is a 6 carbon sugarCarbon comes from the nutrients you intakeRespiratory system1Requires large moist surface area2Blood and external environment interact3Exchange of oxygen and CO24Gases dissolve in moisture easier then exchange Evolution of respiratory system1No respiratory or circulatory systemaSmall thin animals in moist environments nematodes or flatworms large moist external surface area for gas exchangebJellyfish lack both 2Circulatory but no defined respiratory systemaEarthworms have a welldeveloped closed circulatory system to carry gases throughout their bodies Still rely on diffusion inout of circulatory system through moist skin surface3Respiratory and circulatory systems humansaDont need moist exterior but surface where gas exchange occurs lungs is still moist to help diffuse gasesbAir moves by bulk flow large amounts over long distancescDiffusion individual molecules over short distances 1mmiMovement of substances from high to low concentration iiOxygen and CO2 diffuse in and out of blood streamiiiCarbon dioxide is a waste product of cellular respiration dThree types1Gills aquatic animalsaContain dense profusion of capillaries inside filaments bOperculum covers gills fish gulp water to keep from moving across gills2Tracheae in insects3LungsaDelicate moist chambers deep in the bodybDevelopment simple to complex depending on organism
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