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Key Terms Exam 2 (98% on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1002
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Chapter 19anaerobe an organism whose respiration does not require oxygen Archaea one of lifes three domains consists of prokaryotes that are only distantly related to members of the domain Bacteria Bacteria one of lifes three domains consists of prokaryotes that are only distantly related to members of the domain Archaea bacteriophage a virus specialized to attack bacteria binary fission the process by which a single bacterium divides in half producing two identical offspring biofilm a community of prokaryotes of one or more species in which the prokaryotes secrete and are embedded in slime that adheres to a surface bioremediation the use of organisms to remove or detoxify toxic substances in the environment conjugation in prokaryotes the transfer of DNA from one cell to another via a temporary connection in singlecelled eukaryotes the mutual exchange of genetic material between two temporarily joined cellsendospore a protective resting structure of some rodshaped bacteria that withstands unfavorable environmental conditions flagellum a long hairlike extension of the plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells it contains microtubules arranged in a 92 pattern The movement of flagella propel some cells through fluids host the prey organism on or in which a parasite lives the host is harmed by the relationship nitrogenfixing bacterium a bacterium that possesses the ability to remove nitrogen from the atmosphere and combine it with hydrogen to produce ammonium pathogenic capable of producing disease refers to an organism with such a capability a pathogen plasmid a small circular piece of DNA located in the cytoplasm of many bacteria normally does not carry genes required for the normal functioning of the bacterium but may carry genes that assist bacterial survival in certain environments such as a gene for antibiotic resistance prion a protein that in mutated form acts as an infectious agent that causes certain neurodegenerative diseases including kuru and scrapieviroid a particle of RNA that is capable of infecting a cell and of directing the production of more viroids responsible for certain plant diseasesvirus a noncellular parasitic particle that consists of a protein coat surrounding genetic material multiplies only within a cell of a living organism chapter 20 acellular slime mold a type of organism that forms a multinucleate structure that crawls in amoeboid fashion and ingests decaying organic matter also called plasmodial slime mold Acellular slime molds are members of the protist clade Amoebozoa alga any photosynthetic protist alveolate a member of the Alveolata a large protist clade The alveolates which are characterized by a system of sacs beneath the cell membrane include ciliates dinoflagellates and apicomplexans
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