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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1002

919Exam 2 1Other biological entities2Viruses nonliving entitiesaViroidsiEven simpler and smaller than virusesiiFragments of singlestranded RNA with NO protein coat iiiHijack cells infects primarily plant cells including citrus trees potatoes avocadosbPrions preeons iUnusual infectious particlesiiProtein particle with no genetic material DNA or RNAiiiMad cow disease CreutzfeldtJakob disease and kuruivPrions consist of a protein that is folded incorrectly and makes other proteins fold wrongvOrigin Developed as a byproduct of living organisms 3Prokaryotes all prokaryotes are microbesaBacteria and Archea domainsb8000 species described may be 1001000x that numberstc1 organism to appear on earth 35 billion years agodCommon characteristics iCell wallsemirigid permeable made of peptidoglycan carbohydrate with amino acids attached Gives bacteria shapes iiShapes1Bacillirod shaped2Coccisphere shaped3Spirillaspiral shapediiiCapsules and slime layers1Capsulehighly organized firmly attached to cell wall2Slime layerless organized loosely attached to cell wallaThese structures help the cells retain water and stay alivebHelp them attach to where they are 3Pilihairlike structures on surface of bacteria which aid in attachment 4Rotating flagella ivTaxismeans bacteria is moving 1Positive taxismoves towards something2Negative taxis swims away from something3Positive chemo taxisswims towards a beneficial chemical 4Positive photo taxisswims towards light5Negative photo taxisswims away from lightvEndospore1Protective resting structures bacteria surrounded by durable cell wall Resistant to extreme conditionsviReproduction1Asexual in the form of binary fission2Prokaryotes generally have circular chromosomes eukaryotes have linear chromosomes3Eukaryotes use mitosis and miosis but prokaryotes use nuclear fission4Sexual in the form of conjugation using plasmidsviiEnergy sources1Autotrophs using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis2Still do not have organelles they are prokaryotic not eukaryotic plant cells3Heterotrophs including symbiotes viiiDiseases1Gonorrhea syphilis tuberculosis lyme diseaseixAntibiotic resistance4Archaea vs Bacteria aSimilar to bacteria in many respectsiSinglecelled iiProkaryotesiiiSmall sizebDifferent in their icell membrane lipids structureiicell wall composition 1no peptidoglycan in their cell walls2use pseudopeptidoglycaniiirRNA subunit sequences ribosomalivNO KNOWN PATHOGENS can not cause disease1Free living not parasitesvCan live in extreme conditions1Extreme thermophiles Can live in extreme conditions Heatloving Archaea2Extreme Halophiles saltloving Archaea3MethanogensaMethanegenerating Archaea iOccur in oxygenfree habitatsiiSwamp mud guts of ruminant animals cows animals that eat grass4Ice Bacteria and Archea aCells that have gone dormant frozen in ice once thawed they come back to life5Cave Bacteria aAcidophilic acid lovingbSometimes reaching a pH of 05 which is more acidic than the stomachcEven so archaea are not restriced to extreme habitsiAccount for 20 to 30 of marine microbial cellsiiThey are extremely populated throughout the earth very important in the diverse life of earth1Microbes are microscopic but very diverse and extremely abundantaThey make up the major mass of life on the planet2Can we use bacteria to improve our quality of lifeaClean up the environment
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