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Exam 1 Overview (got 96%)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1002
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BIOL 1002 Exam 1Learning ObjectivesCrousillacSpring 2014Chapter 18 Systematics1Understand the twopart naming system and the correct way that organism names are writtenScientific Name is formed from the genus and species and is always underlined or italicized Genus a group that includes a number of very closely related species and the first letter is always capitalizedSpecies within a genus includes populations of organisms that can potentially interbreed under natural conditions and the first letter is not capitalizedThe species name is always paired with its genus name2Understand the Linnaean classification system Domain Kingdom etcTaxonomy the branch of biology that is concerned with naming and classifying organismsModern taxonomy was established by Swedish naturalist Carolus LinnaeusLinnaeus introduced the twopart scientific name to all organismsThe Linnaean classification system includes eight major taxonomic categories each category including all the categories beneath itDomainKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies 3Know the relationship between phylogeny and systematicsPhylogeny evolutionary historySystematics the science of reconstructing phylogenySystematists communicate their findings about phylogeny by constructing evolutionary trees4Understand how anatomy and molecular sequencing is used in systematicsMolecular similarities are also useful for reconstructing phylogenyoSystematists examine genetic similarities between DNA nucleotide sequencesIt has been estimated that 96 of the chimpanzee genome is identical to that of humansSimilarities in actual chromosome structure also can be used to establish relationships between organismsAnatomy plays a key role in systematicsoSystematics look carefully at similarities in both external body structure and internal structures such as skeletonsoHomologous structures such as the finger bones of dolphins bats seals and humans provide evidence of a common ancestor5Understand our current three domain system and which types of organisms belong in eachBefore 1970 systematics divided all species into 2 groupsoAnamaliaoPlantae including plants bacteria fungi and photosynthetic eukaryotesA threedomain system more accurately reflects lifes historyoCarl Woese discovered that prokaryotic organisms included two very distinct groups Bacteria and ArchaeaOur current threedomain systemoBacteria prokaryoticoArchaea prokaryoticoEukarya eukaryoticThese three split very early in life long before animals and plants evolvedfv6Be familiar with the numbers used to describe biodiversity in our ecosystemBiodiversity the total number of species in an ecosystemoThe number of named species is currently about 15 million5 are prokaryotes and protists22 are plants and fungi73 are animalsScience is a PROCESS not a list of factsClassifications change when new information is discoveredIt is estimated that 710 million species may existBetween 710 thousand new species are identified every year
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