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Exam 3 Study Guide (98% on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1002
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CHAPTER 27Homeostasismaintenance of a relatively constant internal environment changes occur within narrow ranges dynamic equilibrium maintained through feedback systemsFeedback Systems 3 partscontrol center sensor effector 2 typesNegative PositiveNegative Feedback System counteracts the change to return the body to its original condition exampleshivering to return a lowered body temperature to normalPositive Feedback System intensifies the change when the need exists once that goal is achieved everything shuts down examplechild laborHierarchy of Animal Organization CellsTissuesOrgansOrgan SystemsAnimal Tissue composed of cells that are similar in structure and perform a specialized function 4 major categoriesepithelial tissue connective tissue muscle tissue nervous tissueEpithelial Tissue continuous sheetsmembranes that cover the outside body and lines its cavities act as a barrier against the movement of substances continuously lost and replaced by cell division form glandsGlands clusters of cells specialized to release substances 2 typesexocrine glands endocrine glandsExocrine Glands release secretions onto body surfaces using ducts examplessweat glands sebaceous glandsEndocrine Glands release secretions into blood examplesadrenal glands thyroid glandConnective Tissue exist mostly to support and bind other body tissues secrete extracellular substances among living cells including collagen protein fibers 3 typesloose connective tissue fibrous connective tissue specialized connective tissueLoose Connective Tissue attaches to epithelium to form membranes surrounds cushions and supports most internal organs exampledermis second layer of skinFibrous Connective Tissue contains densely packed collagen fibers that provide strength examplestendons ligamentsSpecialized Connective Tissue Cartilagesupport frictionreduction shock absorption joints Boneassociated with movement protecting internal organs Fat adipose tissueenergy storage insulation Bloodred blood cells white blood cells plateletsLymphfluid leaked out of blood at capillary blood vesselsElephantiasiscaused by an obstruction of the lymphatic vessels which results in extreme swelling of the skin and tissuesMuscle Tissue 3 typescardiac muscle smooth muscle skeletal muscleCardiac Muscle located in heart involuntarySmooth Muscle located in tubular organs stomach intestines etc involuntarySkeletal Muscle moves the skeleton voluntaryNerve Tissue enables animals to sense and respond to the world brain spinal cord nerves 2 cell typesneurons glial cellsNeuronstransmit electric signalsGlial Cellssurround support electrically insulate neuronsOrgans formed from at least two types of tissues that work together exampleskinOrgan System two or more individual organs that work together performing a common function examplescirculatory immune endocrine nervous digestive urinary respiratory muscular skeletal reproductive CHAPTER 28Circulatory System 3 partsfluid channels pump
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