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BIOL 1002 General Biology FINAL NOTES.docx

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1002
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Ch 42Friday April 11 2008942 AMCh 42Circulation and Gas ExchangeCirculatory systems reflect phylogeny Concept 421oTransport system functionally connect the organs of exchange with the body cellsoFigure 421Respiratory system lungs maximize the uptake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxideExchanged gases at the lungs and at the tissues by way of the circulatory systemoGastrovascular CavitiesSimple animals like cnidarians have a body wall only 2 celllayers thick between the external environmentgastrovascular cavityGastrovascular cavity function boy in digestion and circulationFigure 422Platyhelminthes also have gastrovascular cavitiesoMore Complex Animals Have Two Types of Circulatory SystemsOpen circulatory system blood bathes the organs directlyArthropodsmost mollusksLong tube that contracts to move the hemolymph throughout the body heartDont empty into closed vessel but into open space in the body hemocoelHemolymph fluid is circulatedFigure 423Close circulatory system blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluidBlood confined to closed vessels that branch down into smaller vessels called capillaries that allows exchange to take place across the walls of the vesselsSome invertebrates earthworm and all vertebratesFigure 423Circulatory System PartsBoth of these types of systems have three basic componentsoA circulatory fluid bloodoA set of tubes blood vesselsoA muscular pump heartoVertebrate Circulatory SystemsFigure 421Two chambered heartFish oBlood circulated through systematic circulation that is pumped from the ventricles to the gill capilaries where it gets oxygen from the waterThree chambered heartAmphibianReptile terrestrial vertebratesoDouble circulationoPulmocytaneouspulmonary circuitFour chambered heartMammal or birdDouble circulation in mammals depends on the anatomy and pumping cycle of the heart Concept 422oThe Mammalian Cardiovascular System Figure 425o
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