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BIOL 1002 General Biology Final Study Guide F08.doc

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1002

Study Guide for Comprehensive Portion of the Final ExamBIOL 1202 Spring 2009Chapter 22Explain the mechanism for evolutionary change proposed by Darwin and Wallace ie natural selectionDefine evolutionThe theory of evolution is a valid scientific theory supported by evidence What is evolution and adaptation1Change over time of genetic comparison of a population2Descent of modern organisms with modification from preexisting organismsEvolutionary adaptationAccumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organisms ability to survive in specific environmentsDarwin formed his ideas off of the work of previous naturalistsCuvierCatastrophism and FossilsCatastrophes caused extinct species and different strata exfloodProblem where are the fossils of the organisms around todayHutton and Lyell Gradualism and uniformitariansism Slow natural forces wind water earthquakes caused stratification of rock fossils carried through erosion and river flowLyell used Huttons work Observations of geological formations and rates have never changed and allow us to assume the earth is millions of years oldPreDarwinian Theory of EvolutionLamarck Inheritance of acquired characteristicsBodies of living organisms are modified through the use or disuse of partsThese modifications are inherited by offspringThis idea turned out to be wrongEvolution of Natural SelectionDarwin and Wallace developed the theory independently Darwin as a naturalist aboard the voyage of the Beagle and Wallace as a naturalist in IndonesiaDarwins focus on AdaptationHe studied 3 types of finches on the Galapagos Islands all with different beaks He observed the structure of the beak of the birds eating seeds cacti and insects He also studied descent with modification Ex manateeswhaleselephantNatural SelectionThe unequal survival and reproduction of organisms due to environmental forces resulting in the presence of favorable adaptationsProcess selects from what is available in the gene pool nothing made only eliminatedNew characteristics are not created on demandMechanisms Behind Natural SelectionPotential for Rapid Relatively constant reproductionresources over time and population sizeCompetition among Variability in individuals for structure and survivalbehaviorNatural Selection on Some variability is average the fittest inheritedorganism leave the most offspringEVOLUTION similar to 100m dash where loser are executed and winners reproduceChapter 23Explain the statement It is the population not the individual that evolvesThe smallest unit of evolutionOne common misconception about evolution is that individual organisms evolve in the Darwinian sense during their lifetimes Natural selection acts on individuals but populations evolveGenetic variation in populations contribute to evolutionConcept 231 Population genetics provides a foundation for studying evolutionMicroevolution is change in the genetic makeup of a population from generation to generationThe modern SynthesisPopulation genetics is the study of how population change genetically over timeA population is a localized group of individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspringIncludes genetic changes in populations not caused by natural selectionMendelian inheritance preserves genetic variation in a population because different alleles are always present If there is only one allele it is called a fixed allele Genetic variation is the raw material for evolutionary changeList the five conditions that must be met for a population to remain in HardyWeinberg equilibriumHardy Weinberg EquilibriumDescribes a population that is not evolvingie the allele frequencies dont changeThe five assumptions behind itoExtremely large pop sizeoNo gene flowno migrations btw populationsoNo mutationsoRandom matingoNo natural selectionDescribe the significance of mutation in the generation of genetic variabilityMutationschanges in the nucleotide sequence of DNAcause new genes and alleles to arisepoint mutationois a change in one base in a geneois usually harmless but may have an adaptive impactchromosomal mutations affect many lociodelete disrupt or rearrange many locioare almost certain to be harmfulomay be neutral and even beneficialgene duplicationoduplicates chromosome segmentsonearly always harmful but in rare case its not severe may persist in generations and create subsequent mutationsmutation ratesotend to be low in animals and plantsoaverage about one mutation in every 100000 genes per generationare more rapid in microorganisms and viruses like HIVExplain the role of population size in genetic drift
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