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Review For Final (Got A+ on the test)

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1201

ReviewforFinal1What are first messengersExtracellular molecule that elicits a cellular response when it binds to a receptor proteinHormones neurotransmitters2What are two examples of second messengersCyclic adenosine monophosphatecAMPiSynthesized from ATPiiActivates an enzyme called protein kinaseCalciumiMuscle contractions3What is signal amplification and how does it benefit the cellAmplify faint signalstiA few 1 messenger moleculesiiMany second messenger moleculesiiiEach step in the cascade recruits more moleculesElicit a coordinated response4What is the role of phosphorylation cascades in signal amplificationActivated kinase activates a different kinase etcAt each step more enzymes are recruited5Where are the receptors involved in cell signaling locatedMay involve a receptor in the plasma membraneiIntegral membrane protein1May involve an intracellular receptoriSteroid hormone receptors6Adenylyl CyclaseProduces cAMPHow is ac activity regulatediThe enzyme is modulated by different G proteinsIntracellular cAMP levels go up or downiDepends on the summation7What reactions do protein kinases and phosphatases catalyzeProtein kinases Phosphorylation reactionsiCovalent transfer of phosphate group from ATP to specific amino acids of target proteiniiActs as an on or off switch for the target proteinPhosphatases remove phosphate groups8What is the role of cAMPdependent protein kinase in cell signalingCatalyzes phosphorylation reactions9What are the subunits of protein kinase A and what do they do2 regulatory subunits2 catalytic subunits10What is the subunit composition of the active enzymeIn the cytoplasm cAMP binds to the R subunitR2C2 dissociates into an R dimer and 2 C monomersC monomers catalyze phosphorylation reactions2
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