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BIO 1201 Test 1 Notes (highest grade in class)

14 Pages

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201

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The upper temperature for life is 130CCell and body temperatures can range from 2C130C and pressure ranges from 1atm1100atmThe average depth of the ocean is 24C body temperatures and approximately 380atm with no sunlight38kmOrganisms confront a variety of problems due to their environmentAntarctic fishes live at 2C and are ectotherms meaning their body temperature is determined by their environments temperature Fish accumulate antifreeze molecule proteinsto prevent freezing to deathPenguins keep warm at cold temperatures They are endotherms meaning they set their own body temperature through metabolismDiving seals can hold their breath up to 90 minutes in depths of 1500mDeep sea fishes can go down to 7000m with high pressure cold temperatures and low food availabilityBarophiles bacteria piezophiles are pressure loving they thrive at pressure that kills surface bacteriaThermophiles bacteria exist at temperatures up to 130 and grow up till 121Sharks live withmolar used in their tissues to match the osmotic strength of the sea watertheir urea denatures proteinsHalophiles bacteria that live in osmotic equilibrium with 3 molar saltTuna raise the temperature of their muscles above ambient above their environment as much as 15C They are endotherms Gutless Tubeworms thrive at deep sea hydrothermal ventsMidwater fish and invertebrates organisms living in the water column achieve natural buoyancy despite the high density of biological materials Elements pure substances which cannot be broken down to simpler substancesthere are 92 naturally occurring elements and 103 totalAtom the smallest unit an element can be divided into and retain its identity neutrons neutral charge and protons 1 charge make up the nucleuselectron has a1 charge and essentially no massAtomic numbernumber of protons in the nucleusAtomic massnumber of protonsneutrons Ion number of neutrons does not equal number of protons Compound A substance that can be broken down to two or more elements 1The composition of a compound is always the same definite and exact2When elements combine to form compounds energy is either liberated or absorbed3Elements lose their individual identity when they combine to form a compound The compound has a new set of characteristics4A compound is homogenous versus a mixture Chemical Bonds forces holding atoms together in moleculescharacterized as being weak or strong depending on the amount of energy needed to make or break the bondstrong bonds are known as covalent when atoms share electrons Weak bonds are noncovalentIonic interactions attraction of opposite charges and one atom donates an electron to anotherHydrogen bonds an atom of slightly negative charged is attracted to an atom of slightly positive chargeValence is the number of electrons needed to fill the outer shell Valence electrons are the number or electrons in the outer shellFor example Oxygen has 6 valence electrons and 2 valences Ionic Bonds weak bondstransfer of electron from one atom to another a single electron in outer shell donates to one with 7 valence electrons NaCl has negative chargeCovalent Bonds strong bondsshare electrons to complete valence shellPolar bonds unequal sharing of electrons Hydrogen bonds weak noncovalent bonds
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