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Objectives 3 (aced the test and got 96%)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1201
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Examination 3 Learning ObjectivesThursday April 5 2012 at 600 PM in Campbell AuditoriumBring a number 2 pencil and your IDThere will be 56 questionsthe exam is worth 112 pointsMake sure you can do the genetics problems posted on MoodleUse the Cell Division Summary Cell Division Worksheet Molecular Genetics I and II Worksheets and the Intron ExerciseThe material in the textbookChapters 12 13 14 15 16 and 17Focus on the material covered in lectureCell DivisionFig 124 125 126 127 128 1210 and 1215Fig 137138 and 139Be sure you can complete the worksheets on Cell DivisionReview the material in the Cell Division Summary sheetCentromeres oArea of attachment between 2 sister chromatidsKinetochores oStructure of proteins and specific sections of chromosomal DNA at the centromere point of attachment for microtubules of the spindleChromatids oTwo copies of a duplicated chromosome Spindle apparatus oFormed from microtubules extending from the two centrosomes as centrosomes move away from each other the microtubules lengthen Cell cycle and control checkpointsWhy are there checkpointsWhat do they check for Figure 1215oCheckpointsstop and goahead signals that help regulate the cycleoChecks forG1 checkpointchecks to see if DNA is damagedG2 checkpointchecks to see if DNA is replicated properlyM checkpointspindle assembly checkpoint checks for alignment of chromosomes InterphaseoWhat occurs in G S and G phases12Gsynthesis of cell components increase in number of organelles1Ssynthesis replication of DNA doubling of the genetic materialGcentrioles replicate in animal cells structure for cytokinesis is put in place2oWhat is GoNondividing phaseMost cells in the human body are nondividing What is the purpose of the different types of cell divisionoMitosisProduces daughter cells that have identical genetic complementsOccurs in somatic cellsoMeiosisCell division for gamete productionIn specialized tissuesProduces cell with the 1n chromosome number haploidHaploid oOne set of chromosomes 1nDiploid oTwo sets of chromosomes one from each parent 2nMitosisMitosisEvents in each phaseWhat are the number of chromatids DNA content number of chromosomesFigure 127a 127boProphase Nucleoli disappearChromatic condensesMitotic spindle form from microtubules in cytoplasm Centrosome move away from each otherMitotic spindleFormed from microtubules extending form the two centrosomesAs the centrosome move away from each other the microtubules lengthen oPrometaphaseNuclear envelope fragmentsMicrotubules of the spindle invade the nuclear region and interact with the chromosomes via the kinetochore oMetaphaseCentrosomes at opposite polesChromosomes arrange at the midplane of the spindleoAnaphase Sister chromatids separate and move towards the polesoTelophaseNuclear envelope reformsSpindle breaks downNucleoli reformChromatids become less densely coiled oCytokinesisFigure 1210Division of cytoplasmMechanism differs between plants and animal cells because plants have a cell wallQuestions on MoodleMeiosistMeiosisEvents in each phaseWhat are the number of chromatids DNA content number of chromosomesFigure 138oInterphaseAs in mitosisDuring S phase DNA is replicated giving rise to chromosomes consisting of two sister chromatidsoProphase 1Spindle formationBreakdown of nuclear envelopeNucleoli disappearChromosomes condenseEach chromosome consists of two chromatid from S phase of interphaseHomologous chromosome pairs lie next to one another
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