Learning Objectives Number 2 (got 96%)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1201
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BIOL 1201 Section 1Spring 2013Membranes and membrane function Chapter 7 of the textbook Why are membranes called phospholipid bilayers Hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tailWhat is meant by fluid mosaic Mosaic of proteins drifting laterally and fluid bilayer phospholipidsHow are membranes adjusted for different temperatures Membrane fluidity is adjusted by changing ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids How do the relative amounts of saturated and unsaturated fats changeWhat is meant by membrane fluidity Not to solid and not to fluid Why is this an important property Preserves membrane functionHenrique and Hanson performed experiments with pigs and examined the effects on the relative amounts of saturated and unsaturated fatsWhat did they find Membrane fluidity can acclimate to temp pigs had subcutaneous fats with higher melting point One can see similar patterns comparing species with different body temperature or cells grown at different culture temperaturesTransport of materials across the membrane What types of molecules can move easily across the membrane eg polar nonpolar large small nonpolar water gases steroid hormonesTransport Processes What is simple diffusion Down concentration gradient depends on molecular movement does not no require supplied energy does not used carrier moleculesWhat is facilitated diffusion down concentration gradient depends on molecular movement does not require supplied energy employs a carrier moleculeWhat is active transportWork must be done energy expendedFor which processes are carrier moleculesinvolvedfacilitated diffusion and active transportWhich processes require the input of additional energy Active transport What is a semipermeable barrier Only some types of molecules pass throughWhen equilibrium is reached in diffusion Does movement of molecules stop noDoes net movement of molecules stop yesTonicity and aquatic organismsIn lecture we presented examples of aquatic animals from freshwater and seawaterBony fish sharks and invertebratesHow do they compare to their environmentsWhat is meant by hyper hypo and isotonicIn which direction does water flow Osmosis and the direction of net water movement Be able to analyze Utube experiments involving a semipermeable barrier and solutions with different concentrations of solutes in either arm of the UtubeWhat are aquaporins Channel proteins that facilitate water diffusion through membraneFigures72 to 76 78 711 to 715 717 and 7191
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