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BIOL 1201 Biology For Science Majors Exam 2 BIOL 1201

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1201
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Exam 2 BIOL 1201Polymers large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected togetherPoly more than 1Monomer subunit or building block of a polymer polymer is many monomersPolmerization the bonding of many small subunits monomers to form long molecules polymersoCondensation synthesis reactions are polmerzation reactions in which the covalent linkage of monomers is accompanied by the removal of water molecules Carbs are used as fuels and building materialsCarbs are Organic molecules made of sugar and its polymersoMonosaccharidecan be joined to form disaccharides 2 or polysaccharides 2oDisaccharidesoPolysaccharides all sugar polymersMacromolecules that are polymers of a few hundredthousand moleculesFormed by enzymemediated condensation reactionsBiological functionsEnergy storage starch and glycogenStructural support cellulose and ChitinStorage PolysaccharidesStored sugars can be hydrolyzed as neededStarch glucose polymer that is used as a storage polysaccharide in PLANTSGlycogen a glucose polymer that is used as a storage polysaccharide in ANIMALSoIf there is more glucose than needed excess glucose is linked together and stored as GLYCOGEN in muscles and liveroWhen energy is needed glycogen is quickly broken down to release glucose into the blood stream for short term energy needsoOnce glycogen stores are full excess is then converted to fat for LONG TERM storage needs Carb loading process by which athletes are able to double or triple the amount of glycogen stored in the musclesUsed to delay the onset of muscle fatigue oStock up on energy 2 phase processoDepletion process about a week before competitionextremely low carb diet and rigorous dietoLoading phase 2 days before competitionsuper high carb diet and NO exercise achieves a blood glucose level that is higher than necessaryCarbs are classified by theof simple sugarsoMonomers are simple sugars called MONOSACCHARIDES ocarbs contain only carbon hydrogen and oxygen which occur in the ratio 121 CHOoglycosidic linkage is a covalent bond formed by a dehydration synthesis between 2 sugar moleculeswater weightfirst stages of any diet usually involve rapid and dramatic weight lossothis is because glycogen is being depleted in the muscles and liver as calorie intake is reducedoevery oz of glycogen has 4 oz of waterStructural Polysaccharidecellulose and chitinochitin is a structural polysaccharide thats a polymer of an amino sugarFunction of fats and oilsenergy storageo 1g of fat stores twice as much energy in its chemical bonds as 1g OlestraoFAKE FAT designed to be similar to fats in taste and texturecannot be digested by humansoTastes the same as real fat but too complex for us to breakdownFatsoHumans store fat in ADIPOSE TISSUE CELLSswell and shrink as fat is added and removed from themoInsulates the bodyPhospholipidsoHave 2 ends that behave differently in wateroHydrophilic heads hydrophobic tails
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