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Biology Exam 3 Notes

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1201

Biology Exam 3 Notes Photosynthesis Does not occur in all organisms but impacts all organisms in one way or another 6CO212 H2OLight 6 O2C6H12O66H2O o Pretty much the opposite of cellular respirationo Convert 2 low energy molecules into a high energy molecule using the energy from lighto Endergonic reactionrequires energy to start reactiono Water molecules on both sides of the equation From a chemistry standpoint could cancel out the water on both sides But technically the water on each side is different water molecules one is put in and one is water that is produced Concerned with the fate of oxygen in water in the reactant side Where do the oxygens for glucose and water come fromWhat is the fate of the oxygen in water reactant sideo Oxygen in the reactant side water molecule gets released as oxygeno Plant needs electronswater as a source of electrons To get that it will create electrons protons and waste product of oxygen that we breathe outTwo Stage Processsto 1 Phase Light Reactions Capture light energy in form of chemical energy ndo 2 Phase Dark Reactions Calvin CycleUse chemical energy to convert CO2 into glucoseDont directly require light 1o Overview Form In light reactions producing high energy molecules ATP and NADPHH Energy to make these molecules make from the light These high energy molecules are now used to convert CO2 into a sugar Output of Calvin Cycle are some low energy intermediates or low energy versions of those molecules ADP and NADPThese molecules will be reenergizedReduce NADPPhosphorylate ADP All of this occurs in a chloroplast Which of the following best describes the light reactions o Capture light energy and convert into chemical energy We do not know how to convert energy into matter We do know how to capture energy and convert it to another type of energy Where do the dark reactions occur o Calvin Cycle is the dark reactions o They occur in the stroma inside chloroplast but outside thylakoido Light reactions are happening in or on thylakoid membranes Photosynthetic Structures Chloroplasto 2 outer membranes that surround itrdo 3 set of membranes inside it thylakoid membranes 2Surround the disk structures Stack of thylakoids is called the granumo The liquid portion of the chloroplast outside of the thylakoids is the stromao All reactions for photosynthesis occur inside chloroplast Stroma dark reactions Thylakoid light reactions o The only actual green stuff is in the thylakoid membranesCalvin Cycle One of the 2 stages for photosynthesiso Second stage Dark Reactions or Calvin Cycleo Occurs in the stroma Inputso CO2joining to intermediate already in cycle CO2 is 1 Carbon molecule Intermediate is a 5 carbon molecule So it makes a 6 carbon molecule Then the 6 carbon molecule breaks down into two 3carbon moleculeso ATPIn the process of breaking down the 6 carbon molecule you will convert ATP to ADP to so you are going to add energy into the 3carbon moleculeso NADPHHWill also do a redox reaction where NADPHH is converted into NADPOxidizing the NADPHH Reducing the 3 carbon molecule adding energy to it 3
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