BIOL 1202 Chapter 30

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1201

1Bio 1202CHAPTER 30Plant Diversity IIThe evolution of seed plantsThe next groups of land plants to evolve were the seeds plantsThe new characteristics that showed up with this group areNo longer require water for reproductionGametophyte greatly reducedFemale gametophyte is an ovuleMale gametophyte is pollen Seeds replace sporesHeterosporous two types of sporesMale and FemaleThe ability of pollen to be dispersed by wind or animals allows the seeded vascular plants to break their ties to waterGametophytes of seed plants develop within the walls of spores retained within tissues of the parent sporophyteSo the gametophyte is no longer independentTwo types of spores are seen in the seed plantsThey are heterosporousMegasporesgives rise to the female gametophyteMicrosporesgives rise to the male gametophyteThe two different gametophytes produce two types of gametesfemale gametophyte is an ovule containing an egg cellmale gametophyte is a pollen grain containing spermThe outer layer of the ovule is the integument and the tissue of the ovule is diploid see fig 303Microspores develop into pollen grains which can be dispersed by wind or animals eliminating the need for water in fertilizationA pollen grain can give rise to a pollen tube that allows for passage of sperm into the female gametophyteThe seed develops from the ovuleThe integuments become the seed coatThe zygote becomes the embryoThe seed also contain tissue that acts as food for the new plant
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