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Bio Final Exam Notes (Got A+ on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202

1IntroductionIPlants want to be pollinated that is how fertilizationreproduction occursaAny plant that is better at getting pollinated will have more offspringso more will be present in the next generation etcbPlants are ready to pay to be pollinatedthey pay in the form of nectar or the loss of some pollencThey want to be sure that they are getting what they pay for so they develop traits that attract specific kinds of animalsnot others so the animals will be more likely to carry the pollen to another flower of the same speciesdIf a plant wants bees it will smell nicefrequently will have ultraviolet markingssmall tubular flowerseIf a plant wants butterflies it will be brightly coloredhave lots of nectar in long tubesfIf the plant wants hummingbirds it will be brightly colored especially red large with lots of nectar in long tubes but wont bother with scent since birds dont have a very good sense of smellgIf the plant wants moths nocturnal it will be white or pale yellow which are more visible at nightbe strongly scentedhBats are also nocturnal plants that want bats have similar characteristics as plants that want moths but they tend to be bigger with ore nectariFlowers that want beetles have lots of extra pollen for them to eatnot much nectar because theyd get stuck or drown in itjSome plants that smell like rotting meat want to attract flieskSome plants mimic female wasps so that a male wasp gets pollen dumped on him when he tries to copulate with the flowerChapter 35 3637 Plant StructureGrowthIFlowering Plants have 2 main groupsaMonocots eg corniSeedlings each have 1 cotyledon seed leaf often remains within the confines of the seediiTaproot system slide 6bEudicots eg beaniSeedlings each have 2 cotyledons seed leavesiiFibrous root system slide 6 Monocots Eudicots2IIOrgan systems of flowering plantsaRootsiHairs are extensions of epidermal cellsdramatically increase a roots surface area for absorbing waternutrientsiiFood storage is a function of all roots but some eg carrot taproots are highly modified for storageiiiAboveground aerial or prop roots give extra supportivBreathing roots conduct oxygen to waterlogged rootsvThe roots of many orchids are photosyntheticbStemsiSupport branches flowers which become fruits leaves etciiSome plants have specialized waterstorage stemsiiiStolons runners are horizontal wandering aboveground stemsivRhizomes eg edible base of ginger plant are horizontal belowground stemsvTubers eg potatoes yams are the swollen ends of rhizomes specialized for food storageviBulbs are vertical underground stems consisting mostly of the swollen bases of leaves specialized to store foodviiTendrils are specialized branches that twist around structures to lend supportviiiThorns are rigid sharp branches that deter potential herbivores especially mammalian browserscTerminal buds generally exercise apical dominance over auxiliary budsdLeavesiSome aridadapted plants have succulent leaves eg aloe veraiiLeaves specialized into spines help defend against herbivoreseUndifferentiated meristematic cells occur in budsfWhole plant growth is indeterminate but growth of some organs is determinategWhen a cell divides the daughter cells growthey may differentiate specialize depending especially on where they are located during developmenthDifferentiated cells contribute to 3 tissue systemsiDermal tissue epidermis1Generally a single cell layer that covers the plant2Absorption in root system3Water retention in shoot system aided by waxy cuticleiiVascular tissue
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