Study Guides (238,408)
United States (119,773)
BIOL 1202 (108)
All (83)

Final Notes including Objectives and Figures (Got A+ on the test)

47 Pages
Unlock Document

Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202

CHAPTER 42Circulation and gas exchange 421 circulatory systems link exchange surfaces with cell throughout the bodyTransport systems functionally connect the organs of exchange with the body cells Gastrovascular cavitiesSimple animals like cnidarians have a body wall one 2 cell layers thick between external environment and gastrovascular cavity ohydras jellies and other cnidarians a central Gastrovascular cavity functions in the distribution of substances throughout the body and in digestionGastrovascular cavity functions both in digestion and circulation oanimals with a Gastrovascular cavity fluid bathes both the inner and outer tissue layers facilitating the exchange of gases and extracellular wasteNutrients diffuse across a short distance to reach the cells of the outer tissue layerMore complex animals have 2 types of circulatory systemsOpen circulatory system bloodcirculatory fluid bathes the organs directlyoEg Arthropods and most molluscsoAllows blood and interstitial fluid to mix with each other oLess hydrostatic pressureless energy expenditureIn these animals the circulatory fluid called hemolymph is also the interstitial fluid that bathes the body cellsInterstitial fluidthe fluid filling the spaces between cells in most animalsClosed circulatory system blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid oSome invertebrates and all vertebrates oHigh blood pressure enable effective deliver of O2 and nutrients to the cells of larger and more active animalsoChemical exchange occurs between the blood and interstitial fluid as well as between the interstitial fluid and cellsCirculatory system partsBoth of these types of systems have three basic components 1A circulatory fluid blood2A set of tubes blood vessels3A muscular pump heartVertebrate circulatory system figure 424 5Using diagrams compare and contrast the circulatory systems of fish amphibians nonbird reptiles and mammals and birds1Bony fish rays and sharksoThe heart consists of two chambers an atrium and an ventricleoThe blood passes through the heart once in each complete circuit an arrangement called single circulationoFlow of blood in single circulation not exactly sure if we have to know every detail of this Blood entering the heart collects in the atrium before transfer to the ventricle Contraction of the ventricle pumps blood to the gillsAs blood leaves the gills the capillaries converge into a vessel that carries oxygenrich blood to capillary beds throughout the body Blood then returns to the heart2AmphibiansoFrogs and other amphibians have a heart with three chambers two atria and one ventricleoWhen underwater a frog adjusts its circulation for the most part shutting off blood flow to its temporarily ineffective lungs Blood flow continues to the skin which acts as the sole site of gas exchange while the frog is submerged3ReptilesoIn the threechambered hearts of turtles snakes and lizards an incomplete septum partially divides the single ventricle into separate right and left chambers oThe detailed anatomy of the heart varies among these three groups of reptiles with some adaptations allowing control of the relative amount of blood flowing to the lungs and the body4Mammals and BirdsoIn mammals and birds there are two atria and two completely divided ventricles oThe left side of the heart receives and pumps only oxygenrich blood while the right side receives and pumps only oxygenpoor blood oThe large traffic of substances throughout the circulatory system is made possible by separate and independently powered systemic and pulmonary circuits and by large hearts that pump the necessary volume of blood oA powerful fourchambered heart arose independently in the distinct ancestors of mammals and birds and thus reflects convergent evolutionPulmonary circuits One pump the right side of the heart delivers oxygenpoor blood to the capillary beds of the gas exchange tissues where there is a net movement of O into the blood and of CO out of the blood This part of the circulation is 22called a pulmonary circuit if the capillary beds involved are all in the lungs as in reptiles and mammalsSystematic circuits After the oxygenrich blood leaves the gas exchange tissues the lungs it enters the other pump the left side of the heart Contraction of the heart propels this blood to capillary beds in organs and tissues throughout the body Following the exchange of O and CO as well as nutrients and waste products the now oxygenpoor blood returns to the heart 22completing the systemic circuitList the structural components of a vertebrate circulatory system and relate their structure to their function5Cardiovascular system the closed circulatory system of humans and other vertebrates6Arteries carry blood away from the heart and to the organs7Arterioles small vessels that convey blood to the capillariesoWithin organs arteries branch into arterioles 8Capillaries microscopic vessels with very thin porous wallsoAcross the thin walls of capillaries chemicals and gases are exchanged by diffusion between the blood and interstitial fluid around the tissue cells9Capillary beds a network of vessels that infiltrate every tissue10Venules a vessel that conveys blood between a capillary bed and a vein11Veins the vessels that carry blood back to the heartoVenules converge into veins
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 1202

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.