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Final Study Guide 1202 (got 96%)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202
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Study Guide for Comprehensive Portion of the Final ExamBIOL 1202 Fall 2011Chapter 22Explain the mechanism for evolutionary change proposed by Darwin and Wallace ie natural selectionoThe unequal survival and reproduction of organisms due to the environmental forces resulting in the preservation of favorable adaptationsoProcess selects from what is available in the gene pooloNew characteristics are not created on demandDefine evolutionoChange over time of the genetic composition of a populationoDecent of modern organisms with modification from preexisting organismsChapter 23Explain the statement It is the population not the individual that evolvesList the five conditions that must be met for a population to remain in HardyWeinberg equilibrium1No mutations2Large population size3No gene flow4No natural selection5Random matingDescribe the significance of mutation in the generation of genetic variabilityoMutations changes in nucleotide sequence of DNASource of new alleles and genesoPoint mutation change in one nucleotide base in a geneoChromosomal mutations delete disrupt or rearrange many loci on a chromosomeoGene duplications duplication of whole segments of a chromosomeoMutation rate averages 1 in every 100000 genes per generationExplain the role of population size in genetic driftoStatistically the smaller a sample the greater the chance of deviation from a predicted resultoWith a small population size allelefrequencies can fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the otheroTends to reduce genetic variationDistinguish among directional disruptive and stabilizing selection
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