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BIO 1202 Test 4 Notes (98% on the test)

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOL 1202
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter Learning ObjectivesChapter 37 Soil and Plant NutritionConcept 371 Soil is a living finite resourceDefine soil texture and soil compositionSoil texture is determined by the size of the particles present in the soil They may be large sand medium silt or small clay The smaller the particles the smaller the air pockets the less oxygen available to the roots and the more negatively charged surface area for water retention Larger particles allow for more oxygen to reach the roots but water retention is poor The best texture for soil is a mixture of the three types called loam Supplementing it with peat moss manure sand or compost may alter the physical composition of the soilExplain how soil is formedSoil is formed from the weathering of rocks The rock particles are then broken down by the actions of weak acids Plants secrete acids that dissolve rock and in addition plant roots may mechanically break down rock When organisms penetrate rock they accelerate both the chemical and mechanical breaking down processes Horizon A includes brokendown rock and organic matter horizon B contains less weathered rock and little organic matter and horizon C consists of only partially broken down rockName the components of topsoilTopsoil is composed of organic and inorganic components Inorganic compounds include ions Cations such as Ca Mg K as well as anions like phosphates and sulfates Organic components consist of humus dead plant material and other organic matter Other organic components include bacteria protists earthworms nematodes fungi algae insects and plant rootsExplain why plants cannot extract all of the water in soilSome of the water in soil is bound to the negatively charged surfaces of the particles that makeup the soil This water is not available for absorption by plant roots Most of a plants mass comes from CO2Explain how the presence of clay in soil helps prevent the leaching of mineral cationsLeaching is the sweeping away of soil nutrients by means of runoff from rain Cations are positively charged and therefore bind to the surface of soil particles they have a negative charge Clay is a soil that is made up mostly of small particles These small particles have only small spaces interspersed throughout The water contained in these small pockets is in contact with the soil particles and thus will not be leached away from the soil Define cation exchange explain why it is necessary for plant nutrition and describe how plants stimulate the processCation exchange is the process of replacing H derived from the reaction of CO from roots with HO 22with mineral cations Ca Mg K and other plant required nutrients that are attached to the surfaces of the soil particles The root cations enter soil solution from which point the mineral cations will exchange with them Once the mineral cations are in the soil solution the roots will absorb themConcept 372 Plants require essential elements to complete their life cycleDefine the term essential elementDefine the term limiting nutrientAn essential element is one that is required by the plant however the plant cannot make it The limiting nutrient is the one that will run out first and will stop the process within the plant that it is involved in because of it Distinguish between macronutrient and micronutrientMacronutrient are those that are required by the plant in large quantities there are nine of them C O H N K Ca Mg P SMicronutrient are those that are required by the plant in small quantities Cl Fe Mn B Zn Cu Ni MoConcept 373 Plant nutrition often involves relationships with other organisms
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